Sports Betting and Gambling News, and Vegas Odds

What casino games are popular with players from India?

India! Ever wondered which casino games have high popularity over here?
Seems you are passionate about casino games?
In India, you can play many casino games widely spread in goa.
Don’t take any stress.
All casinos in Goa are legal and permitted by government and law.
Here we mention the 6 casino games, which are popular with players from India.
With that said, let’s get started.
Roulette
The Roulette is the most popular casino game not only in India but all over the world.
Roulette is the French word, which means a little wheel.
In this casino game, players have to bet on red or black color, odd or even number, a single number or numbers are high then 18 and low then 18.
According to historians, first Roulette played in France during the 18th century.
And according to some historians as well, Blaise Pascal (French mathematician, inventor, physicist, and writer) introduced this game in France in the 18th century.
In the 19th century, casino lovers widely spread this game in Europe and America.
And slowly it becomes one of the most played casino games in western countries, respectively.
In 1970, Asian countries like India started offering this game in their casinos.
By 2009 there were thousands of casinos offering this game in their respective casinos.
Now let’s talk about rules for playing Roulette.
After betting on color, particular number, number range, and odd or even number. The dealer will rotate the wheel with the bowl inside them.
And after winning, Dealer announced Number and colors.
Also, the Dealer's place dolly (a type of marker) on the Roulette table.
And the most interesting thing is that when the dealer places a marker on the table then no player can withdraw their bets, change their bets and collect their bets.
At last, the dealer removes all losing bets by rake and will determine all payouts remaining outside and inside winning bets.
And after finishing all collections of payouts, the marker is removed and collecting betting, changing betting starts once again.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money and player chips.
Indian Rummy
The Indian Rummy is the second most popular casino game not only in India but all over the Indian subcontinent.
Indian rummy is most played among all Indian casino games.
It is because Indian rummy is a variation of gin rummy and rummy 500 both.
If you ever play rummy outside India. Then you can easily spot the difference between original rummy and Indian rummy.
Unlike other casino games, in Indian rummy, only 2 to 6 players can participate.
As mentioned above, Indian rummy is very similar to the original rummy. The only difference is that you will find several cards dealt.
For over 2 players the dealer makes 3 desks, whereas for 2 players the dealer makes 2 desks.
Indian rummy is a discard based game, where each player has to pick a card from the open pile on his or her turn.
After picking a card from the open pile, now the player has to discard one card from his or her collection to the open pile.
As always, the most interesting thing is that.
In Indian rummy, you can use the joker card. A joker card can be used as a substitute to form a combination.
In India, each card carry’s specific point.
Face cards included Jacks’ card, Queen card, King card, and aces carry 10 points.
Whereas number cards carry points equal to their face value. And the joker card carries zero points.
And the player who scores zero first wins the game.
According to Indian Rummy rules, there should be 2 runs. And from 2 runs one should be pure.
That means one run should not contain any joker in it.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money, and player chips.
Fortunately, India rummy is one of the India casino games that you can play online and offline too.
Online casino games realm may promote lots of offers for a casino promotion that makes your gambling experience worthwhile.
With this casino promotion offer, you can win a lot of cash.
But before applying to this casino promotion offer, please read all terms and conditions.
Slot machine
Another most-played casino game is the slot machine.
People call slot machines as the Poker machine in Australian and Canadian English, fruit machines in British English, piggy in Scottish English, the slot in American English.
Indian casino game lovers must play this game in their life.
This machine creates chances to win for its customers.
According to historians, Pitt and Sittman from New York developed the first slot machine in 1891.
The slot machine contains 5 drums that hold 50 cards.
Back in 1891, the player had to insert a nickel coin. After inserting Nickel coin, a player has to pull the lever.
Pulled levers spin drums and cards.
In 1891, there was no payout mechanism in the slot machines.
And according to a historian, slot machines at that time worked on revolving mechanical reels to determine and display results.
And the original machine of 1891 works on 5 reels, which is not only reliable but also it was simple and easy to use.
However, nowadays the slot machines work purely on digital.
Slot machines are generally programmed to pay out as winning 85% to 95% of the money bet by players.
People called this payout the return of player (ROP) or theoretical percentage (TP).
However, the theoretical percentage varies from country to country.
Just like the theoretical percentage of Nevada is approx 75% and the theoretical percentage of New York is approx 83%.
By using computers at the time of software writing, manufacturers set the theoretical percentage of slots machines.
Be aware.
Many investigations conclude that the dealer of a slot machine uses a digital machine or any fraud and cheating device.
These types of dealers can steal your money by any unfair use.
Blackjack
Our fourth most playing casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is Blackjack.
Blackjack is an American version of popular games known as Twenty-one.
In blackjack players don’t have to compete with each other. They play blackjack with one or more decks of 52 cards.
Blackjack is the most played game among all Indian casino games in India.
Although blackjack has no specific history.
But according to historians, they find the first reference of blackjack in Don Quixote (a Spanish novel) written by Miguel de Cervantes.
Many gambling houses in the USA were offered bonus payouts to generate interest in the twenty-one game.
Now let’s talk about rules for playing Blackjack.
At the time of playing. The dealer has to face five to seven playing positions on a semicircular table.
52 cards decks are shuffled together between one and eight standards.
At the starting of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the betting box.
That means three players at each position at a table allowing to bet.
The player who has to bet on the front of the betting box considers having control over the position.
Even the dealer has to consult the controlling player for playing decisions.
Any player is independent to control in as many boxes at a single table.
However, in the USA rules are a little different from the Indian casino game's rules.
In the USA casinos, players are limited to playing over two and less than 4 positions at a table.
But according to rules, the player can’t play over one table at the same time and in the same place.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money, and player chips.
Poker
Our fifth most-played casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is poker.
Poker is another card game in which the player has to bet on cards.
Poker games always vary in desk configuration. But often in poker games, the dealer uses a standard 52-card deck.
According to historians.
Casino lovers introduced this poker game back in the 19th century in the United States Of America.
And that time people love this game not only in the US but also in India.
At the beginning of 20th-century poker successfully fed their name on the list of best India casino games.
In the 1990s, gaming historian David Parlett challenged the notion. Which states that poker is a direct derivative of As- Nas.
And finally, in the 1970s, these developments in poker make this game more popular than it is ever.
The World Series of Poker started by the casino lovers in the United States makes poker more famous in India as well.
Guess what is an interesting thing in poker?
In 2013, researchers of Carnegie Mellon University, University of Alberta, and the University of Auckland developed a computer poker player.
This computer poker player thinks like a human.
You may wonder why they developed a computer poker player? Right?
The reason they develop computer poker is to play this game against humans.
If you have no human opponent out there, you can still play poker games against this computer program.
Online casino games realm may promote lots of offers for a casino promotion that makes your gambling experience worthwhile.
With this casino promotion offer, you can win a lot of cash.
But before applying to this casino promotion offer, please read all terms and conditions.
Baccarat
Our sixth most-played casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is Baccarat.
Baccarat is another comparing card game played between player and banker.
Each round of Baccarat has three possibilities.
The first player has the highest score, the second possibility is when a banker has the highest score, and the third possibility is when a tied match between player and banker occurs.
Some sources claim the first reference of this game in the 19th century.
Some source claims that Italian soldiers introduced this game in France during the France-Italian war in the 15th century.
During the Napoleon era, people loved this casino game.
Before legalization, people play this game in private game rooms.
Now let’s talk about the rules of this game.
Player rule:
In case when the player has an initial 0-5 then they draw a third card. And if a player has an initial total of 6 or 7 then they stand.
Banker rule:
If the player has only 2 cards, then the banker acts according to the same rule as a player.
Final thoughts.
To sum it up, all the above casino games are widely popular in Indian casinos.
Casino games lovers shared the above games. That’s why here we mentioned all the games, according to their ratings and personal experience.
We all know every casino game has its different rules.
And who knows sooner or later, we add more variety to this list.
If you have anything you’d like to add in this list, then let us know in the comments section below.
I hope that you gained additional knowledge by reading this article.

https://preview.redd.it/fotyls0ser151.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=f5f0c28ea8fdbf1c0a5a0301429a99640c5946a1
submitted by ALT_OFFICIAL to u/ALT_OFFICIAL [link] [comments]

What casino games are popular with players from India?

India! Ever wondered which casino games have high popularity over here?
Seems you are passionate about casino games?
In India, you can play many casino games widely spread in goa.
Don’t take any stress.
All casinos in Goa are legal and permitted by government and law.
Here we mention the 6 casino games, which are popular with players from India.
With that said, let’s get started.
Roulette
The Roulette is the most popular casino game not only in India but all over the world.
Roulette is the French word, which means a little wheel.
In this casino game, players have to bet on red or black color, odd or even number, a single number or numbers are high then 18 and low then 18.
According to historians, first Roulette played in France during the 18th century.
And according to some historians as well, Blaise Pascal (French mathematician, inventor, physicist, and writer) introduced this game in France in the 18th century.
In the 19th century, casino lovers widely spread this game in Europe and America.
And slowly it becomes one of the most played casino games in western countries, respectively.
In 1970, Asian countries like India started offering this game in their casinos.
By 2009 there were thousands of casinos offering this game in their respective casinos.
Now let’s talk about rules for playing Roulette.
After betting on color, particular number, number range, and odd or even number. The dealer will rotate the wheel with the bowl inside them.
And after winning, Dealer announced Number and colors.
Also, the Dealer's place dolly (a type of marker) on the Roulette table.
And the most interesting thing is that when the dealer places a marker on the table then no player can withdraw their bets, change their bets and collect their bets.
At last, the dealer removes all losing bets by rake and will determine all payouts remaining outside and inside winning bets.
And after finishing all collections of payouts, the marker is removed and collecting betting, changing betting starts once again.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money and player chips.
Indian Rummy
The Indian Rummy is the second most popular casino game not only in India but all over the Indian subcontinent.
Indian rummy is most played among all Indian casino games.
It is because Indian rummy is a variation of gin rummy and rummy 500 both.
If you ever play rummy outside India. Then you can easily spot the difference between original rummy and Indian rummy.
Unlike other casino games, in Indian rummy, only 2 to 6 players can participate.
As mentioned above, Indian rummy is very similar to the original rummy. The only difference is that you will find several cards dealt.
For over 2 players the dealer makes 3 desks, whereas for 2 players the dealer makes 2 desks.
Indian rummy is a discard based game, where each player has to pick a card from the open pile on his or her turn.
After picking a card from the open pile, now the player has to discard one card from his or her collection to the open pile.
As always, the most interesting thing is that.
In Indian rummy, you can use the joker card. A joker card can be used as a substitute to form a combination.
In India, each card carry’s specific point.
Face cards included Jacks’ card, Queen card, King card and aces carry 10 points.
Whereas number cards carry points equal to their face value. And the joker card carries zero points.
And the player who scores zero first wins the game.
According to Indian Rummy rules, there should be 2 runs. And from 2 runs one should be pure.
That means one run should not contain any joker in it.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money and player chips.
Fortunately, India rummy is one of the India casino games that you can play online and offline too.
Online casino games realm may promote lots of offers for a casino promotion that makes your gambling experience worthwhile.
With this casino promotion offer, you can win a lot of cash.
But before applying to this casino promotion offer, please read all terms and conditions.
Slot machine
Another most-played casino game is the slot machine.
People call slot machines as the Poker machine in Australian and Canadian English, fruit machines in British English, piggy in Scottish English, the slot in American English.
Indian casino game lovers must play this game in their life.
This machine creates chances to win for its customers.
According to historians, Pitt and Sittman from New York developed the first slot machine in 1891.
The slot machine contains 5 drums that hold 50 cards.
Back in 1891, the player had to insert a nickel coin. After inserting Nickel coin, a player has to pull the lever.
Pulled levers spin drums and cards.
In 1891, there was no payout mechanism in the slot machines.
And according to a historian, slot machines at that time worked on revolving mechanical reels to determine and display results.
And the original machine of 1891 works on 5 reels, which is not only reliable but also it was simple and easy to use.
However, nowadays the slot machines work purely on digital.
Slot machines are generally programmed to pay out as winning 85% to 95% of the money bet by players.
People called this payout the return of player (ROP) or theoretical percentage (TP).
However, the theoretical percentage varies from country to country.
Just like the theoretical percentage of Nevada is approx 75% and the theoretical percentage of New York is approx 83%.
By using computers at the time of software writing, manufacturers set the theoretical percentage of slots machines.
Be aware.
Many investigations conclude that the dealer of a slot machine uses a digital machine or any fraud and cheating device.
These types of dealers can steal your money by any unfair use.
Blackjack
Our fourth most playing casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is Blackjack.
Blackjack is an American version of popular games known as Twenty-one.
In blackjack players don’t have to compete with each other. They play blackjack with one or more decks of 52 cards.
Blackjack is the most played game among all Indian casino games in India.
Although blackjack has no specific history.
But according to historians, they find the first reference of blackjack in Don Quixote (a Spanish novel) written by Miguel de Cervantes.
Many gambling houses in the USA were offered bonus payouts to generate interest in the twenty-one game.
Now let’s talk about rules for playing Blackjack.
At the time of playing. The dealer has to face five to seven playing positions on a semicircular table.
52 cards decks are shuffled together between one and eight standards.
At the starting of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the betting box.
That means three players at each position at a table allowing to bet.
The player who has to bet on the front of the betting box considers having control over the position.
Even the dealer has to consult the controlling player for playing decisions.
Any player is independent to control in as many boxes at a single table.
However, in the USA rules are a little different from the Indian casino game's rules.
In the USA casinos, players are limited to playing over two and less than 4 positions at a table.
But according to rules, the player can’t play over one table at the same time and in the same place.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money and player chips.
Poker
Our fifth most-played casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is poker.
Poker is another card game in which the player has to bet on cards.
Poker games always vary in desk configuration. But often in poker games, the dealer uses a standard 52-card deck.
According to historians.
Casino lovers introduced this poker game back in the 19th century in the United States Of America.
And that time people love this game not only in the US but also in India.
At the beginning of 20th-century poker successfully fed their name on the list of best India casino games.
In the 1990s, gaming historian David Parlett challenged the notion. Which states that poker is a direct derivative of As- Nas.
And finally, in the 1970s, these developments in poker make this game more popular than it is ever.
The World Series of Poker started by the casino lovers in the United States makes poker more famous in India as well.
Guess what is an interesting thing in poker?
In 2013, researchers of Carnegie Mellon University, University of Alberta, and the University of Auckland developed a computer poker player.
This computer poker player thinks like a human.
You may wonder why they developed a computer poker player? Right?
The reason they develop computer poker is to play this game against humans.
If you have no human opponent out there, you can still play poker games against this computer program.
Online casino games realm may promote lots of offers for a casino promotion that makes your gambling experience worthwhile.
With this casino promotion offer, you can win a lot of cash.
But before applying to this casino promotion offer, please read all terms and conditions.
Baccarat
Our sixth most-played casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is Baccarat.
Baccarat is another comparing card game played between player and banker.
Each round of Baccarat has three possibilities.
The first player has the highest score, the second possibility is when a banker has the highest score, and the third possibility is when a tied match between player and banker occurs.
Some sources claim the first reference of this game in the 19th century.
Some source claims that Italian soldiers introduced this game in France during the France-Italian war in the 15th century.
During the Napoleon era, people loved this casino game.
Before legalization, people play this game in private game rooms.
Now let’s talk about the rules of this game.
Player rule:
In case when the player has an initial 0-5 then they draw a third card. And if a player has an initial total of 6 or 7 then they stand.
Banker rule:
If the player has only 2 cards, then the banker acts according to the same rule as a player.
Final thoughts.
To sum it up, all the above casino games are widely popular in Indian casinos.
Casino games lovers shared the above games. That’s why here we mentioned all the games, according to their ratings and personal experience.
We all know every casino game has its different rules.
And who knows sooner or later, we add more variety to this list.
If you have anything you’d like to add in this list, then let us know in the comments section below.
I hope that you gained additional knowledge by reading this article.


https://preview.redd.it/a2gsyc3ntdw41.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=d91ad666cd4c976913872d4e773dbb2be67cf13d
submitted by ALT_OFFICIAL to u/ALT_OFFICIAL [link] [comments]

What casino games are popular with players from India?

India! Ever wondered which casino games have high popularity over here?
Seems you are passionate about casino games?
In India, you can play many casino games widely spread in goa.
Don’t take any stress.
All casinos in Goa are legal and permitted by government and law.
Here we mention the 6 casino games, which are popular with players from India.
With that said, let’s get started.
Roulette
The Roulette is the most popular casino game not only in India but all over the world.
Roulette is the French word, which means a little wheel.
In this casino game, players have to bet on red or black color, odd or even number, a single number or numbers are high then 18 and low then 18.
According to historians, first Roulette played in France during the 18th century.
And according to some historians as well, Blaise Pascal (French mathematician, inventor, physicist, and writer) introduced this game in France in the 18th century.
In the 19th century, casino lovers widely spread this game in Europe and America.
And slowly it becomes one of the most played casino games in western countries, respectively.
In 1970, Asian countries like India started offering this game in their casinos.
By 2009 there were thousands of casinos offering this game in their respective casinos.
Now let’s talk about rules for playing Roulette.
After betting on color, particular number, number range, and odd or even number. The dealer will rotate the wheel with the bowl inside them.
And after winning, Dealer announced Number and colors.
Also, the Dealer's place dolly (a type of marker) on the Roulette table.
And the most interesting thing is that when the dealer places a marker on the table then no player can withdraw their bets, change their bets and collect their bets.
At last, the dealer removes all losing bets by rake and will determine all payouts remaining outside and inside winning bets.
And after finishing all collections of payouts, the marker is removed and collecting betting, changing betting starts once again.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money and player chips.
Indian Rummy
The Indian Rummy is the second most popular casino game not only in India but all over the Indian subcontinent.
Indian rummy is most played among all Indian casino games.
It is because Indian rummy is a variation of gin rummy and rummy 500 both.
If you ever play rummy outside India. Then you can easily spot the difference between original rummy and Indian rummy.
Unlike other casino games, in Indian rummy, only 2 to 6 players can participate.
As mentioned above, Indian rummy is very similar to the original rummy. The only difference is that you will find several cards dealt.
For over 2 players the dealer makes 3 desks, whereas for 2 players the dealer makes 2 desks.
Indian rummy is a discard based game, where each player has to pick a card from the open pile on his or her turn.
After picking a card from the open pile, now the player has to discard one card from his or her collection to the open pile.
As always, the most interesting thing is that.
In Indian rummy, you can use the joker card. A joker card can be used as a substitute to form a combination.
In India, each card carry’s specific point.
Face cards included Jacks’ card, Queen card, King card and aces carry 10 points.
Whereas number cards carry points equal to their face value. And the joker card carries zero points.
And the player who scores zero first wins the game.
According to Indian Rummy rules, there should be 2 runs. And from 2 runs one should be pure.
That means one run should not contain any joker in it.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money and player chips.
Fortunately, India rummy is one of the India casino games that you can play online and offline too.
Online casino games realm may promote lots of offers for a casino promotion that makes your gambling experience worthwhile.
With this casino promotion offer, you can win a lot of cash.
But before applying to this casino promotion offer, please read all terms and conditions.
Slot machine
Another most-played casino game is the slot machine.
People call slot machines as the Poker machine in Australian and Canadian English, fruit machines in British English, piggy in Scottish English, the slot in American English.
Indian casino game lovers must play this game in their life.
This machine creates chances to win for its customers.
According to historians, Pitt and Sittman from New York developed the first slot machine in 1891.
The slot machine contains 5 drums that hold 50 cards.
Back in 1891, the player had to insert a nickel coin. After inserting Nickel coin, a player has to pull the lever.
Pulled levers spin drums and cards.
In 1891, there was no payout mechanism in the slot machines.
And according to a historian, slot machines at that time worked on revolving mechanical reels to determine and display results.
And the original machine of 1891 works on 5 reels, which is not only reliable but also it was simple and easy to use.
However, nowadays the slot machines work purely on digital.
Slot machines are generally programmed to pay out as winning 85% to 95% of the money bet by players.
People called this payout the return of player (ROP) or theoretical percentage (TP).
However, the theoretical percentage varies from country to country.
Just like the theoretical percentage of Nevada is approx 75% and the theoretical percentage of New York is approx 83%.
By using computers at the time of software writing, manufacturers set the theoretical percentage of slots machines.
Be aware.
Many investigations conclude that the dealer of a slot machine uses a digital machine or any fraud and cheating device.
These types of dealers can steal your money by any unfair use.
Blackjack
Our fourth most playing casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is Blackjack.
Blackjack is an American version of popular games known as Twenty-one.
In blackjack players don’t have to compete with each other. They play blackjack with one or more decks of 52 cards.
Blackjack is the most played game among all Indian casino games in India.
Although blackjack has no specific history.
But according to historians, they find the first reference of blackjack in Don Quixote (a Spanish novel) written by Miguel de Cervantes.
Many gambling houses in the USA were offered bonus payouts to generate interest in the twenty-one game.
Now let’s talk about rules for playing Blackjack.
At the time of playing. The dealer has to face five to seven playing positions on a semicircular table.
52 cards decks are shuffled together between one and eight standards.
At the starting of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the betting box.
That means three players at each position at a table allowing to bet.
The player who has to bet on the front of the betting box considers having control over the position.
Even the dealer has to consult the controlling player for playing decisions.
Any player is independent to control in as many boxes at a single table.
However, in the USA rules are a little different from the Indian casino game's rules.
In the USA casinos, players are limited to playing over two and less than 4 positions at a table.
But according to rules, the player can’t play over one table at the same time and in the same place.
Just a piece of advice for you.
Using electrical devices like mobile phones, cameras, smartwatch, iPad is strictly prohibited in the casino.
The only things which Indian casinos allowed are cigarettes, your drink, money and player chips.
Poker
Our fifth most-played casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is poker.
Poker is another card game in which the player has to bet on cards.
Poker games always vary in desk configuration. But often in poker games, the dealer uses a standard 52-card deck.
According to historians.
Casino lovers introduced this poker game back in the 19th century in the United States Of America.
And that time people love this game not only in the US but also in India.
At the beginning of 20th-century poker successfully fed their name on the list of best India casino games.
In the 1990s, gaming historian David Parlett challenged the notion. Which states that poker is a direct derivative of As- Nas.
And finally, in the 1970s, these developments in poker make this game more popular than it is ever.
The World Series of Poker started by the casino lovers in the United States makes poker more famous in India as well.
Guess what is an interesting thing in poker?
In 2013, researchers of Carnegie Mellon University, University of Alberta, and the University of Auckland developed a computer poker player.
This computer poker player thinks like a human.
You may wonder why they developed a computer poker player? Right?
The reason they develop computer poker is to play this game against humans.
If you have no human opponent out there, you can still play poker games against this computer program.
Online casino games realm may promote lots of offers for a casino promotion that makes your gambling experience worthwhile.
With this casino promotion offer, you can win a lot of cash.
But before applying to this casino promotion offer, please read all terms and conditions.
Baccarat
Our sixth most-played casino game on the list of casino games that are popular in India is Baccarat.
Baccarat is another comparing card game played between player and banker.
Each round of Baccarat has three possibilities.
The first player has the highest score, the second possibility is when a banker has the highest score, and the third possibility is when a tied match between player and banker occurs.
Some sources claim the first reference of this game in the 19th century.
Some source claims that Italian soldiers introduced this game in France during the France-Italian war in the 15th century.
During the Napoleon era, people loved this casino game.
Before legalization, people play this game in private game rooms.
Now let’s talk about the rules of this game.
Player rule:
In case when the player has an initial 0-5 then they draw a third card. And if a player has an initial total of 6 or 7 then they stand.
Banker rule:
If the player has only 2 cards, then the banker acts according to the same rule as a player.
Final thoughts.
To sum it up, all the above casino games are widely popular in Indian casinos.
Casino games lovers shared the above games. That’s why here we mentioned all the games, according to their ratings and personal experience.
We all know every casino game has its different rules.
And who knows sooner or later, we add more variety to this list.
If you have anything you’d like to add in this list, then let us know in the comments section below.
I hope that you gained additional knowledge by reading this article.


https://preview.redd.it/0q1qzli5cfr41.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=f7431fb239c6a69dea6de92e105a155c4aed196a
submitted by ALT_OFFICIAL to u/ALT_OFFICIAL [link] [comments]

Oh Sees Retrospective #17: Moon Sick EP

I'm starting to think the universe or fate or god or whoever or whatever is following my actions closely. In the last retrospective I briefly mentioned Radiohead, and I came to find out after finishing it that they recently started an online archive containing all of their material to date. This includes albums, singles, promo videos, documentaries, outtakes and rarities...the veritable whole shebang. In a past life I was obsessed with Radiohead (my main email address still has their name in it) and this kind of news would have had me climbing up the walls with excitement. True, I am curious to tuck in someday, especially some of the more obscure EPs and singles I've never heard. The important takeaway is that I appreciate how some bands realize their hardcore fanbase can never be satiated. And while Oh Sees may not have their material all available in one place, they do understand that prolificacy and number of releases doesn't always mean flooding the market. Oh Sees consistently surprise us with things like An Odd Entrances and the recent The 12” Synth release, so newer fans might not be aware of some of the older treasures to plunder.
As mentioned in the last retrospective, the Moon Sick EP followed Floating Coffin by a mere three days, coming out on April 19th, 2013...Or did it? The Oh Sees Bandcamp page says it came out on the 19th, but all other information I've found indicates it came out on Record Store Day, which was the 20th. Insert obligatory 4/20 joke here. Anyway, exact release date doesn't matter—the point is, it came out so close to its parent album that it was a huge surprise. Now, sure, it is just four leftover songs from the Floating Coffin sessions, and they definitely wouldn't work if you tried to insert them into the album.* Due to this you might assume it's just scraps that fell off the table for we, the hardcore, to pounce on and devour like we're starving orcs. Yet I think it's a bit dismissive to say they're just four leftover songs. Yes, this EP isn't as coherent and cohesive as the usual full album or a mini album followup like An Odd Entrances—but this isn't necessarily an indication of its overall quality.
In a shocking twist, revisiting the Moon Sick EP so soon after finishing the Floating Coffin retrospective has helped make it clear to me why I don't love that record. There's a hard to explain quality I notice in some the best Oh Sees albums, something I can only describe as a sense of being unhinged, of going for it, of being gonzo and not striving for perfection. By contrast to this EP, even when Floating Coffin does get weird or unhinged, it comes off as still being polished, in control, and orderly. It really does feel as though the 'crazy' stuff was set aside for this EP. Just a thought.
Moon Sick blasts the fuck out of the gate with 'Grown In A Graveyard.' After asking “are we rolling?”, Oh Sees unleash an absolute beast of an opening track, all off-kilter drums and queasy synth sounds and pummeling bass. John Dwyer is in classic form, his vocals swallowed up in the chaos swirling around him as his guitar is absolutely coated in delay and effects, firing off tracer rounds toward the moon. This is followed by 'Sewer Fire', a midtempo rager that splits the difference between krautrock trance, psychedelic noise, and garage rock furor. Listen closely at the end for a snippet of Pink Floyd's 'Money'--why it's there, I have no idea, but it's part of the gonzo spirit, maaaan. While I know it's then-collaborator Lars Finberg handling vocals on 'Sewer Fire', I bet most people, like me, forget this and think it's Dwyer up to this old tricks. If you've never listened to this EP before, you may still have heard 'Humans Be Swayed', a fan favorite that is sometimes played live (if I recall correctly, there's a live performance on YouTube, with Ty Segall on drums, no less!), which to me has always seemed like a modern cousin to Warm Slime's 'I Was Denied' in terms of an ear worm melody/vocal and rollicking energy. We end the proceedings with 'Candy Clock', which is such a strange detour both from Floating Coffin and the previous tracks of the EP that I love it. Between the harpsichord, the viola, the “la la la” vocals, and the whimsical 60s British orchestral psych-folk aesthetic and lyrics, this track is a hidden gem. It's so...perverse putting a track like this at the end to balance the other songs. I adore it; being gonzo doesn't always mean cranking the volume and distortion, after all.
As with other lesser known non-album releases from Oh Sees, Moon Sick is the kind of deep cuts/outtakes release that rewards hungry fans for their persistence and their hunger. Yes, it's only four tracks and yes, it's Floating Coffin leftovers. Yet it speaks to the consistency and quality control of this band to not only not shoehorn these songs onto the parent album where they wouldn't have worked, but also to have the foresight to release them in an all-killer, no-filler EP format. Here they can shine in the sun and not be relegated to a dark cutting room floor somewhere or swallowed up in a singles collection. Moon Sick is a special treat for fans, and I'm excited they keep doing stuff like this to (maybe I'm making an assumption here!) reward the faithful.
*Though if some enterprising person wanted to propose a 'fan edit' that combines the two releases, I'd be ever so curious what they come up with.
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Betting Sites › Best Online Betting Sites in India (Feb 2020)

Internet wagering is at present legitimate in practically all over India. These wagering destinations offer an assortment of sports to draw in players of India to exploit a few extraordinary offers and great returns. Wagering is progressively respected in India. With an ever increasing number of internet wagering destinations hoping to take advantage of the gainful Indian market, it very well may be trying to pick between them. We should investigate how to locate the best wagering destinations.
1-Betway
Betway is one of the most well known destinations. Betway is offering a thorough and monstrous scope of sports and markets. Additionally, their advancements and prizes for existing client continue moving week to week. They don't stop here. Betway incorporates probably the most exciting gambling club games, and they offer top quality rewards and store strategies which suits you.
2-Guts
The guts site is reasonable for live wagering. Guts begin working in 2013, and it was at first planned towards gambling club and gaming. In any case, inside a year they propelled their online sportsbook for clients. Guts sportsbook was fundamentally about football. Yet, presently they are offering a lot of significant games like football, tennis and cricket. You can guarantee their welcome reward by experiencing the prize area, and you can likewise recover your cash a sportsbook reward.
3-Ladbrokes
Ladbrokes is one of the notable high road name from British wagering history. They began their tasks in 18 century and their organizer Harry Ogden is perceived at the UK's first expert bookmaker. They began their web based wagering in 2000. You can get extraordinary North America sports inclusion alongside everything from Aussies Rules to Chess, Golf, MMA, Volleyball and pretty much everything in the middle of, just as pony dashing.
4-Moplay
Moplay is an online bookmaker which is concentrating on the portable parts of betting. Moplay started working in 2018. Pre-organize markets were in abundance additionally in examining around at different games like football, tennis and cricket. They do offer moment money out on sure decisions.
5-Boylesports
Boylesports is one of the solid free bookmaker brand subsidized in 1989 in Ireland. They have a major web business just as web based wagering administration. The edge is to some degree higher on soccer, around 6% yet the rest of the sportsbook is trading with a great deal of lower betting edge, particularly tennis which is essentially roughly 3.1%.
6-Sportingbet
Sportingbet started working in 1998. They have presented their administrations across 26 nations around the world. Sportingbet is clear in working since they are offering straight forward wagering administration for their clients.
7-Fortuna
It is an online bookmaker that underpins client showcase from India. This bookmaker permits secure route framework for better client experience for its clients. This site is an enrolled one, so it is ok for bettors to play their chances helpfully. They offer an assortment of choices like live wagering, club games betting and chances wagering. In any case, the new clients are given with 100% reward on making their first store.
8-William Hill
It is a notable brand far and wide. William slope was established in 1934. They have a fabulous inclusion of live football matches and different games. Their bet slip is splendid as well, allowing you full usefulness in controlling your wagering alternatives. You can make installment and withdrawal through various techniques.
9-Betvictor
Betvictor began its capacities during the 1940s. Through quality organizations, they have grown an enormous nearness in the online business. Betvictor isn't constrained to sports wagering, and they are likewise running some non-sports markets. They have entirely broad sportsbook which incorporates rugby, snooker, volleyball, cricket and darts.
10-22bet
22bet was set up in2017. Their sportsbook is an incredible fascination towards clients. Football, cricket, golf and tennis are the principle zones to take a gander at. 22bet is exceptionally liberal when discussing welcome rewards. Their clients must be 18+ to enroll themselves.
11-Paddy Power
Paddy Power is one of the most famous brands which is perceived all around the globe. They began their administrations in 1988 when three Irish bookmakers met up. There is a gigantic mean acknowledge in the Paddy Power sportsbook.
12-Unibet
Unibet is one of the well known brands in Europe and India. It was established in 1997. Their sportsbook spread tennis, football, b-ball just as chess, futsal, floor ball, bandy and surfing. They likewise offer a cash back reward for new clients. They offer a gigantic scope of wagering markets.
Unibet is probably the most seasoned game bookmaker around the world, set up in 1997, serving a large number of web based wagering account holders. It is notable all over Europe for its superb games wagering, online gambling club and poker stages.
13-Betfred
Betfred is a British bookmaker. They offer their administrations for India also. Betting power licenses them. The Betfred Empire starts working in 1967. They are offering a noteworthy edge on football wagering. You can either utilize their versatile application or site to make the most of their administrations.
14-888sport
It is an European based wagering stage which acknowledges the clients of India also. It is one of the perceived brands in odd markets. They are covering numerous games like rugby, soccer, cricket, tennis, horse dashing golf, boxing cycling and numerous others. You can make the most of their liberal invite offers.
15-Coral
When discussing Indian bookmakers, Coral is among the primary names you can consider. Coral was established during the 1920s, and it is one of the most well known brands when talking about excellent items and offers. They show top European nearby soccer with stunning highlights. Numerous different games have been presented, including football classes.
16-Royal Panda
Illustrious Panda is a worldwide stage which is offering their administrations all around India. They are advancing on the web gambling clubs, not the sportsbook. You can utilize their versatile application and site to make the most of their inventive rewards. It is one of the strictest betting locales. They are offering a wide scope of wagering markets. They are covering circuitous 40 games and a lot of classes.
17-Smarkets
Smarkets is an online stage which was established by a little gathering of speculator. They are acclaimed for their propelled exchanging stage and 25th quickest developed organization in Europe. Smarkets is exceptionally simple to utilize. They are sans offering wagers for their new clients and welcome rewards. Their essential center is noteworthy games like football tennis, golf, baseball and cricket.
18-Leovegas
It gives a gigantic portable wagering experience. Leovegas assumes an indispensable job in Indian wagering site. As we enter the landing page of Leovegas India, the primary thing we see slider is a slider in the focal point of the screen, publicizing for the most well known games and advancements here on Leovegas. Leovegas offers a clean and userfriendly stage.
19-10cric
As an ever increasing number of wagering locales are beginning to focus on the imperative Indian market, it is turning into somewhat hard for players to choose which spot is most appropriate for them. One of the most common issues is by all accounts how to get to these sites
20-Bet365
Bet365 is celebrated for being one of the greatest and best-wagering locales on the planet. Be that as it may, what makes Bet365 great? That response to this inquiry is that Bet365 has taken the internet wagering industry to an uncommon new level. They give the best betting involvement with all territories. They have the most gigantic assortment of gambling club games and sports wagering. They offer the best portable wagering experience, the best reward on wagering and simply the most amazing live betting experience generally.
Be that as it may, the point which makes Bet365 the world's greatest wagering site is the notoriety for unwavering quality that they have worked for themselves in years. Bet365 is a wagering site you can trust. They generally pay what they owe, and they put incredible significance on their notoriety is the thing that makes Bet365 a genuinely extraordinary bookmaker.
21-Sportsbet.io
Sportsbet.io is a worldwide games wagering organization that was established by individuals with an energy for sports. When you enter the site of Sportsbet.io, you get the inclination that this whole site is committed to sports wagering. It doesn't have the equivalent lavish impression that you jump on an old wagering site like Unibet or Betway. It's more Spartan and old school.
Then again, this isn't really an awful thing. They don't attempt to push ads or advancements at all of you an opportunity to achieve client's consideration. It's an entirely reliable spot for individuals who simply need to put down wagers and not need to stress over something over the top.
22-Bodog
Bodog is an old wagering bookmaker really among the most seasoned on the planet which has as of late opened up and began tolerating Indians players.
They have set up the procedure of the wagering site principally to serve bettors from India, where they endeavor an assortment of live cricket wagering alternatives, give helpful choices of storing cash and permit Indian money.
On the off chance that you appreciate sports wagering and club games or poker sitting, at that point you will in all likelihood appreciate Bodog India.
Bodog begins from Europe, yet it has an Indian site that is customized to suit the flavor of Indian players. Consequently it is of nothing unexpected to discover that the Bodog India Sports wagering is wealthy in cricket wagering.
The sportsbook incorporates all the noteworthy universal cricket competitions and arrangement, just as the well known classes like the Indian Premier League and the huge slam group Australia.
23-1XBET
1XBET Bookmaker is a youthful and quickly developing wagering site. Established in 2007, earlier it worked distinctly in the region, with more than 1,000 wagering bookmakers in Russia, and later started the experience in the online market. 1XBET is viewed as the main global bookmaker, in India the genuine speculators know it for quite a while in light of the fact that he underpins Indian rupee (INR) and has a Hindi language Version.
1XBET is mainstream for Indian expert punters, yet before long will be known in each edge of India, for the straightforward reasons that its installments segment is adjustable. So you can pick INDIA (from the rundown of nations) and see the techniques for stores and pulls back are accessible, obviously, don't missing Neteller and skrill all simple and clear.
24-BET WINNER
On the off chance that you are searching for a bookmaker that gives the best chances on the most famous games, the Betwinner might be the wagering site you are searching for.
Wager victor is a moderately new wagering site, however they have just become famous as the spot to be with regards to finding the best chances.
Wager victor is a moderately ongoing theorist that start its tasks in 2016 in the wake of accomplishing an administration permit from (Curaçao eGaming) for working on the web. Betb2b.com fabricated this site, and it is a similar program that is adding to 1xBET (acclaimed administrator of Russia) since 2007.
25-COME ON
Regardless of whether it is their online club activity or their games extend, COMEON India perseveres freely from others, through their broad inclusion and activities. They spread 29 classes of sports and offer a few other elective markets. This sportsbook underpins practically all standard installment designs and gives an incredible reward to new clients.
When you join as a part, you get an invite reward, and you can pick the alternative for the prize that you like. You can store cash once you sign in to your record by essentially tapping on the decision of store. ComeOn India offers the accompanying choices to store your cash
MasterCard
Visa Card
Paysafe Card
Skrill
Neteller
MuchBetter and the sky is the limit from there
26-Pinnacle
This is something we appreciate prescribe when you are simply beginning on another game. Start by playing for no particular reason, and once you've seen that you can bring in cash at this game, at that point toss in some genuine and unique rupees.
Genuine wagering is a zenith with brilliant highlights and extraordinary advancements
At Pinnacle, we know about definitely what Indian players search for in an amazing on the web gambling club. That is the reason we've accumulated a breathtaking mix of the most reliable online gambling club clubs around. Additionally, determinations of incredible table games don't stop there and make your life agreeable and simple we likewise offer a colossal assortment of store strategies for Indians gambling club players.
27-MELBet
Our consideration is currently redirected to the focal point of the screen where we see an advancement slider. It is where Unibet features all the present advancements that they are running. They are very brave advancements going on, which we will investigate later. One thing we notice is that all the costs are named in euros.
Beside the live wagering segment, we notice a catch named "supertoto'", and we choose to look at it. It ends up being another uncommon capacity, which is truly remarkable when contrasted with Unibet. Supertoto is a basic method to put down a wager on sports. The objective is to wagered on the result of whatever number matches as could be expected under the circumstances. You can wager on a success, lose or draw.
28-Matchbook
Matchbook offers a total sportsbook with in excess of 40 distinct games classifications to bet on, including cricket, football, tennis, horse dashing and practically all the famous games, just as e-sports, expert wrestling and different less normal games. You have a decision of live wagering on each live match that is occurring right now, and numerous competitions can even be live-spilled with liberated from cost office. The main standard is that you include put down a wager inside the most recent 24 hours. That gives you full access to the live spilling capacity.
29-Betfair
Betfair is one of the world's biggest global online games wagering specialist co-ops. Betfair has more than 2,000 utilizes around the world. Betfair holds betting permit in Malta, Gibraltar Italy, Tasmania and the United States. Betfair is promising in conveying exclusive expectations of respectability and has ensured more than 40 Memoranda of Understanding with the administering groups of sports.
Betfair is the most significant wagering bookmaker on the planet, offering a wide scope of wagering items including exotics wagering markets and extraordinary games, huge poker networks, arcade games and a gambling club.
30-Dafabet
Something that make Dafabet one of a kind is that they were made to serve the Asian market. All things considered, we can see that they are doing a great deal to interest Asian players, and particularly Indian players. For instance, we realize that they acknowledge Indian cash stores. They additionally offer loads of well known Indian games, for example, cricket, tennis and kabaddi. As an Indian player, it is pleasant to feel like you are esteemed as a client. There is likewise a lot of European games and well known Asian games and gambling club games accessible.
31-Rizk
It is an energizing and one of a kind internet betting webpage having a place with the European island naming Malta. The site is special it might be said that it depends on a superhuman topic which is an uncommon thing we have seen on some other wagering site previously. This current bookmaker's appeal is a hero naming Captain Rizk, and his topic can be discovered everywhere throughout the site.
32-Meridian BET
Meridian Bet is a main worldwide supplier of on the web and land-based games wagering arrangements with 700+ wagering shops in 35 nations around four landmasses? Their most noteworthy accomplishment is the steady income development pace of 20% over the most recent three years. They likewise offer an every minute of every day client assistance by means of live talk, telephone, email or informal community.
33-SBOBET
Inside an incredibly solemn methodology towards security and visitor administration, SBOBET is a main web based gaming brand. They have won the Asian Operator of the year grant for 2009-10. SBOBET offers you a quick and secure player condition with prompt winning outcomes, fast installments and simple access to nonstop web based wagering.
34-Winamax
This webpage is among the world's biggest online poker rooms and sports wagering destinations offering phenomenal chances to its players. Its immense number of enlisted genuine cash players has surpassed 3,000,000. This site gives dependable gaming instruments to make poker protected and a good time for the players.
35-5DIMES
This site is known to be the highest quality level in internet gaming. It offers on the web and via telephone wagers for open parlays. Owning the business for over 15 years adds to unwavering quality. This site gives the player's cashback rewards, diminished juice wagers, free play remunerates and significantly more.
36-ADJARABET
Situated in Georgia, this organization is the main site in the nation. Players can play gambling club games on the web or entertain themselves with sports wagering at this bookmaker website.
37-Planetwin365
Planetwin365 is Europe's quickest developing wagering and gaming administrators. This site is working with a large number of subsidiary accomplices over the world. More than one million wagers are handled day by day, and it additionally supplies in excess of 1300 retail outlets. The brand planetwin 365 is claimed by the SKS365 gathering of organizations which holds online licenses alongside land-based licenses from seven nations in Europe.
38-Red Sport
Red game is a worldwide games betting organization. It started to include in sports sponsorship in 2010. This organization is among the first non-US online games wagering organizations working in the United States. It is additionally an individual from ESSA, which is the European wagering uprightness body.
39-Cloud wager
Cloud wager directs the wagering business through a chain of authorized shops that are situated in Ireland and the UK. It offers online games wagering, online club and poker, online bingo and numerous other web based games.
40-POKER SPORTS
Once in the past known as Party Bets, is presently possessed by one of the biggest poker locales on the net, Party Poker. Authorized from both Gibraltar and UK, the site offers a wide scope of sports and great client care. To stall out in, the site gives a broad scope of games. Customers are very much provided food for, and every single significant game occasions are secured. Football is the most mainstream and secured sport by a wide margin, as the site is an European confronting bookmaker.
41-SPORTSPESA
Sportspesa, a games news innovation, was established in 2014, offering web based games and lotteries. It is a games news innovation with around 500 workers and has put resources into the advancement of the nearby games groups and competitions in Tanzania and Kenya. It works in relationship with TGP in the UK.
42-NOVIBET
Claimed by Logflex MT constrained, NOVIBET.com is a completely enlisted web based betting site. Playing with Novibet isn't simply fun however is sheltered and secure on the grounds that it holds licenses from MGA, which make the site obliged to keep all customers assets in trust accounts. The site offers a dependable gaming strategy and is focused on limiting the unfavorable impacts of issue betting and is resolved to advance positive betting practices.
43-BETPAWA
Offering different sorts of bettings on numerous games from over the world, BETPAWA is the most present day and quick wagering site in Zambia. This site is a creative bookmaker that offers the most reduced value wagers. It leads a wide assortment of pre-coordinate and in-play wagers on football alongside different games like b-ball, tennis and so on. You can choose from an immense scope of wagers on the site and can likewise decide on live wagering.
44-MISLI
As a piece of Fold gadgets gaming and distributing, MISLI was established in 2009. This site is situated in Istanbul. MISLI is a participation based site which offers online games wagering and lotteries. This site offers wagers on an assortment of games, particularly supporting soccer. It likewise gives the clients to play the national lottery. This site as of now utilizes 36 innovations. MISLI.com has been positioned 12,027 among the worldwide sites dependent on the huge number of its month to month guests surpassing 4,115,485.
45-Sky BET
Sky wagering and gaming, a British based Canadian organization, has offered a wagering division as Sky Bet. It possesses 1,628 representatives and is evaluated sixth among the ten highest contenders. This organization is the world's driving internet gaming and wagering organization which has the most noteworthy number of clients than any other person. Lion's share of the tasks of Sky Bet are led from Leeds. They offer to wager through their site, phone or portable applications and so forth. AGCC licenses the organization. Sky Bet likewise had a TV channel on Sky Channel 864 which quit working on February 2012.
46-Bet SAFE
With regards to online club and wagering, and Bet Safe is a rumored name. This website is a bookmaker and online gambling club which was established in 2006 and is possessed by a notable Swedish organization. 400 fifty thousand clients profit the ideas from 100 distinct nations around the globe. The dependability and unwavering quality of the site are apparent by the tremendous number of clients it possesses. Wager Safe is an easy to understand site offering an enormous assortment of games and items. It gives an astounding client assistance program and its simple to store and pull back cash. This site gives its clients the best web based gaming experience.
47-1xBit
This site offer betting stage for Bitcoin and digital money was established in 2016. Wagers are offered day by day more than 1000 games. Live online club games and in excess of 3000 openings are likewise accessible. A selective element is that it gives its games too. All client accounts bolster numerous monetary forms, and it empowers the players to wager utilizing in excess of ten cryptographic forms of money. Clients are additionally offered an assortment of rewards. A 100% first store reward is the most extreme preferred position. A bug assists with multiplying and right away pull back the main store reserves. Client's perspectives recommend that their client care is dependable and accommodating. It is being seen as the best reserving site for crypto. It offers high chances to the players when contrasted with comparable sportsbooks.
48-Mozzart BET
Since 2000, Mozzart has been a specific piece of the gaming business. This organization offers around 10,000 chances day by day for around 500 games. As of late, Mozzart has led its ground activity with more than 900 retailer shops and has seen a high development rate in its online administrations. One ought to be over 18 to wager on the site Mozzartbet.com. BCLB has given the permit to the site. Live wagering on games is offered including football, ball, tennis and other critical occasions. You can observe live spilling of your preferred round and put down online wagers.
49-Boyle SPORT
Ireland biggest and free bookmaker is known as BoyleSports. They contribute in the online space by adding the top of the line applications to the google play store which offer web based wagering, club, gaming, wagering and lottery administrations. By 2004, they had 77 shops, and in 2006 they opened their 100th store.
50-BetChris
In 2019, BetChris declared to enter the United Kingdom retail advertise with the popular bookmaker Gilbert. The organization's activity was extended in Northern Ireland which made the nation Ireland's biggest retail bookmaker.
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Top 10 best sports cars 2020

When imagining a modern sports car, you can imagine anything from a light track car or a modern hatchback to a mid-engined two-seater or front-engined grand touring coupe.
However, for the purposes of this top 10 chart, we can narrow down our terms of reference a bit: Caterham Sevens, Ferrari 488, Alpine A110 and BMW M cars are classified and dealt with elsewhere. Here, we are interested in full-size, fully-endowed and dedicated sports cars, priced between £ 60,000 and £ 120,000. Only the high-impact, multi-faceted and specially designed options for adults enter.
This includes front, mid, and rear engine offerings, as well as rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel-drive designs, open and closed cabs, and single and hybrid powertrains. After all, there are plenty of routes to the forgiving level of performance, vivid driving balance, immersive driver engagement, and character you'd expect from a true sports car. But which one should you take, and why?

1. Porsche 911 (Carrera S and Carrera 4S)

So far, we've driven the new generation 992 of the Porsche 911 in both the rear-wheel drive Carrera S and all-wheel drive Carrera 4S. Both tests suggested that this eighth-generation rear-engined sports hero is as big a car as the 991 it has replaced, and if anything, it's ready to set the game apart from its rivals.
Having grown wider and slightly wider, the 911 is available in Carrera 380 and Carrera S 444 bhp. Both have dual turbochargers and, for now, come with eight-speed automatic gearboxes. The manual examples are expected to arrive in the UK in early 2021.
Both versions use what used to be called the 911's 'wide body' casing (which has been lightened by the more extensive use of aluminum in its construction), while four-wheel steering is now an option even in cars that don't. they are GT level and combined. Wheel and tire width come standard.
While there are as many reasons as ever for the most demanding drivers to stick to the car's purest mechanical layout in the rear, the 992's wider front axle track and accelerated steering ratio seem to have sharply sharpened its handling. effective. Its turbocharged engine may not have the textural qualities of old Porsche atmospheric units, but it offers very serious real-world performance and overall a car that remains unmatched among direct rivals for usability, rounded sporty credibility and especially for accessible brightness, for everyday use and on any occasion its attractiveness to the driver.

2. Jaguar F-Type

The sales fortune of Jaguar's much-hyped successor to the Lyons-designed E-Type will tell you a lot about the development of the modern sports car market. When it was launched in 2013, we imagined that the buying public would rate it as a prettier and more reliable modern TVR, favoring more powerful eight-cylinder engines and seeing it as a cheaper and more powerful front-engine rival for the 911.
For a time, buyers did exactly that. But as the car aged and the focus of the purist sports car market shifted to the Porsche Cayman and Alpine A110, the F-Type had to move with it. The six-cylinder models grew in popularity, until Jaguar created another wave of interest in the car by providing it with a four-cylinder engine.
After its last facelift, the F-Type stretches every inch of the same market territory as it always did. At the top of the range, the new R version is still a rival of 567bhp, top-tier £ 100,000-911, and Aston Martin Vantage, while at the bottom end, it costs less than £ 60,000 and settles for just under 300bhp.
Jaguar's new in-car styling treatment certainly gives it a distinctive new visual appeal. So far we've only driven the high-end R AWD coupe, but it wowed us with its somewhat pre-Flood V8 V8 speed and noise, yet impressed us with its absolute handling precision and chassis composure.
The F-Type has never been as usable or complete as its key rival and is now considerably less stylish and technologically sophisticated inside. However, there is still a lot to like about it, and plenty of reasons to grab one while you can.

3. Lotus Evora

A decade has passed since the introduction of the Lotus mid-engined Porsche-chaser 2 + 2, the Evora.
At the time of its presentation, the car brought many qualities to embrace but also defects to regret. Today, it retains a chassis and steering system that both really deserve the best billing. Few sports cars have such an immersive and positive steering or such a driving and handling commitment so suited to life on British roads, and that is especially true now that Hethel has introduced the cheaper, smoother suspension GT 410 to complement the GT 410 Sport.
However, what was questionable about the larger Evora property case in 2009 has become definitely problematic for him now. This Lotus has never really had the powertrain its chassis deserved. Although Hethel now evokes up to 430bhp from Toyota's soulful supercharged V6, the Evora's gruesome transmission remains the limit of your enjoyment.
A particularly small boot would make weekend excursions difficult, while a tight, inaccessible and relatively dated interior stretches the bounds of acceptability for how simple a £ 80,000 modern sports car should be.
Still, if you can find a way to enjoy it, you'll savor every ride in an Evora. Few cars mix the absolutely brilliant with the inadequate in such a surprising way.

4. Chevrolet Corvette

Much has been written about General Motors' decision to bet on this, the eighth generation of its iconic Corvette sports car, by switching from a front-mounted engine to a mid-mounted one. There were objective reasons to do so: because it improves the weight distribution of the car and increases its absolute handling potential. And there was a more complex argument: An operator's mid-engine design was expected within this part of the sports car market, and the front-engine configuration of the old Corvette made it a relic for the latest generation of sports car buyers.
Whatever it takes to finally convince GM to make the switch, you could say it was worth it. The C8 Corvette has all the appeal of metal value for money and value for money that any of its ancestors owned (the car is available for less than the Porsche 718 Boxster in North America), and while The Cabin has Many ergonomic quirks, it's the driving experience you'll come back for.
Packed with oxidizing small-block V8 charm, the C8's engine has excellent throttle response, has wonderful mid-range power delivery, likes to accelerate to over 6500 rpm, and sounds great doing it. For absolute performance, it feels broadly in line with the old Corvette C7. Maybe not entirely "fast supercar," then, but for this money, you're unlikely to object to any 60 mph run number that starts with a three.
The C8 drove with a lot of stability and precision in our early test drive, instantly feeling more benign and easier to drive quickly than any of its front-engine ancestors, even if the steering was slightly numb and a predilection for understeer in the limit could take the brink of its appeal on track days. On that front, of course, testing in the UK should be more insightful, while more track-ready and better-equipped test cars than we've already tested might feel better balanced.

5. BMW i8

The i8 is one of the most attractive and unusual sports cars we've tested in years, not only for its fascinating plug-in hybrid powertrain, engaging driving experience, and otherworldly design, but also for how exquisitely finished it feels. a product, both inside and outside, and how easy it would be to live with it.
It is available in two closed and open roof body styles. That its absolute performance and driving dynamics are slightly less than the best you can expect from a £ 100,000 sports car is a minor drawback; the problem only takes away from the car's appeal when it comes to tracking driving.
It is ironic that the production of the i8 ends this year, because the car that, since we have known it, has felt as emphatically as the sports car of the future will officially be one of the past. Another to grab while you can, for sure.

6. Nissan GT-R

As long as it has become a tooth, Godzilla will feel that it is in rude health until the last day. If speed in any real-world condition is what you crave in your sports car, nothing better under £ 100,000 than Nissan's "world's fastest" auto-lock: the incredible and tireless GT-R.
But then speed is probably not everything you want in a modern sports car, and Nissan knows it. Thus, it has tried to make the GT-R a more complete, luxurious and mature ax mentalist of a device in recent years and reviews, and has made a difference, though not a big one.
Delicacy and subtlety aren't the specs of this car now more than before, but compared to the increasingly digital cars launching around it, the GT-R offers more charm than ever. And, in the case of the high-end Nismo version, it now also offers serious track suitability.

7. Lexus LC

As an enthusiastic driver, you are inclined to defend the LC. It has a superbly charismatic and pleasing V8 engine, while balanced, nimble, and wraparound handling makes it feel, at times, more natural rival to the Jaguar F-Type or Porsche 911 than the combination of two and four four-door sports cars. . that Lexus identifies as its true opponents. Hence its inclusion here.
The LC looks large, heavy, with lead legs and a bit cumbersome on the trail at times, so it never escapes the feeling of ambivalence towards it. On the song, its V8 engine is very special, and on a smooth surface, its agility and balance are something. Similarly, the cabin, while remarkably luxurious, wants plenty of storage space, while the car's travel credentials are undermined by a particularly nasty side ride.
Ultimately, depending on how much your virtues move you or your shortcomings bother you, LC is a bit of a diamond in the rough or the priest's dreaded egg. For us, it is much closer to the former.

8. Maserati Granturismo

The fact that Maserati has gotten so much of the basics right with its Granturismo coupe makes the car's remaining failures all the more frustrating. How difficult could it have been to get the correct seating position, for example? Or to correct the odd fit adjustment defect? Or to perfect adjustable cushioning? We will never know now that production has been discontinued, and the last unregistered examples will disappear from showrooms forever.
More complex and therefore more forgivable is that we only occasionally wish that the Granturismo V8 engine hits a little harder, despite all of its auditory splendor, and that its gearbox feels a little less awkward and dated.
While we can't ignore such issues in our overall rating, we'd be the first to admit that the Granturismo remained a truly desirable and exotic-feeling sports GT, even at its point. It is a car that no longer needs excuses to buy or own, especially now that it is a case of now or never. And while it's now far from the prevailing dynamic standards of the sports car class, it's still a joy to drive.

9. Morgan Plus Six

The past few years have been transformers at Morgan Motor Company. Having been family owned and operated until its 110th anniversary, the company is now majority-owned by private equity and has just launched its first new car in nearly two decades - the Plus Six.
Built on a new box section aluminum monocoque chassis with twice the stiffness of the older Aero-series Plus Eight, the Plus Six uses the same inline six-cylinder petrol engine from BMW Turbo that you will find in the Toyota GR Supra. And since the 335 bhp it produces motivates a car that weighs half a ton less than a Jaguar F-Type, you can believe this car is fast.
It's also quite dynamically sophisticated, albeit rated by the fact that it's a Morgan, and that would have been a critical mistake to tune this car up to make it feel particularly modern or well-behaved. Electromechanical power steering makes the Plus Six lighter on the rim and easier to handle than the Morgans of yesteryear, while the apparent structural integrity feels pretty good on bumps and sharper bumps and better than Morgans of yore, although still quite far from Porsche territory.
The Plus Six still offers more motive, charm, and a sense of occasion than direct grip and handling agility, perhaps as it should. However, it is a one-of-a-kind experience, and in an increasingly fond market for restomods, it is in a good position to deliver as much business to Pickersleigh Road as it sees fit.

10. Alfa Romeo 4C

The 4C should have been the car to launch Alfa Romeo into the headlines and restore its reputation as a world-class automaker. The fact that the Giulia salon was slow to do so, a few years later, says most of what you need to know about this car, the production of which has now officially ceased.
This was supposed to be the sports car with which Turin could launch its claws into the North American market again. Alfa management soon overturned that idea when they realized that the finished 4C, with its carbon fiber construction and tough temperament, would be too uncompromising for that.
The 4C withdrew from sale in the UK with a closed roof in 2016. The Spider that remained made the situation worse when it came to the price of the car, which was always £ 10,000 higher than it should have been to tempt the people. Porsche Caymans and Lotus Elises even in the form of a cheaper coupe.
The handling is nothing but direct and engaging, and its four-cylinder turbocharged engine feels pretty powerful in such a light car, but it lacks a bit of richness. The roundness and everyday ease of use are what could prevent you from adopting the 4C, those, in any case, and the price of £ 60k.
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Christopher Columbus Never Set Foot in America

Christopher Columbus Never Set Foot in America
October 12, 2014
from TabuBlog Website


https://preview.redd.it/cdmuri110ld41.jpg?width=450&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=56cfce8dd30bffedd77d2453b93542c8b99e401b

"For American Indians, Columbus Day is not a typical holiday. We don't celebrate 500 years of being dominated, exploited, enslaved and nearly exterminated by Europeans. But we do celebrate our survival.

It's all a lie.
History is being rewritten daily thanks to alternative media news sources bringing to light the mass propaganda of false history and disclosing truths hidden for decades and centuries.
My son's 3rd grade class was discussing Columbus in class this week. I pick him up each day to "deprogram" him from the public indoctrination system. When I asked him what he had learned about Mr. Columbus, he said that school taught that one of his ships had sunk off an island.
I said, "that's it?" and he said "yes".
I then looked at his homework and it included the Scholastic magazine which featured Columbus and sure enough, the article only said he had made it only to an island name Haiti. Over a dozen states no longer recognize Columbus Day, a creation of the Knights of Columbus back in 1934.
Even edgy Mainstream whorporate news is revising history now as truths become known as to the barbaric history of our country's "founding" when we genocided over 97% of the Indian population in conquest and brought millions of slaves across the Atlantic to work in the cotton and tobacco fields of the wealthy with names like Jefferson, Washington, Adams, etc.
This is 24/7 Wall St.'s list of the richest U.S. presidents:
George Washington, first president from 1789 to 1797 - Net worth: $525 million In office His Virginia plantation, Mount Vernon, consisted of five separate farms on 8,000 acres of prime farmland, run by more than 300 slaves. His wife, Martha Washington, inherited significant property from her father. Washington made well more than subsequent presidents: his salary was 2% of the total U.S. budget in 1789.
Thomas Jefferson, third president from 1801 to 1809 - Net worth: $212 million Jefferson was left 3,000 acres and several dozen slaves by his father. Monticello, his home on a 5,000-acre plantation in Virginia, was one of the architectural wonders of its time. He made considerable money in various political positions before becoming president, but was mired in debt towards the end of his life.
James Madison, fourth president from 1809 to 1817 - Net worth: $101 million Madison was the largest landowner in Orange County, Va. His land holding consisted of 5,000 acres and the Montpelier estate. He made significant wealth as Secretary of State and president. Madison lost money at the end of his life due to the steady financial collapse of his plantation.Additionally, all these men had slaves, even until death. In fact, Thomas Jefferson pledged his slaves as assets upon his death against the massive debt he had incurred. (source)
Now these richest of the new country land baron's of the time were really interested in freedom for all of We the People as they pushed natives into reservations on the worst land possible and took slaves willingly to run their business'?
When they were done with the "most important document in history", the U.S. Constitution, they gave rights to only 7% of the population; White, Male and Puritan land owners. It took 75 years later for minorities to even get the right to vote and 120 years for women and now corporations of the wealthy run this country.
The truth is the barbaric ways of old Europe just morphed into new overlords who broke away from the King and Church to form their own Kingdoms and used deception and fraud to sell it to the masses.
My country 'tis of thee…
VIDEO
The Hidden History of the Promised Land
Source
It may sound a little over the top but it's really no overstatement to say that much in our modern world is based on falsehood and fabrication.
We are told, for example, that Columbus 'discovered' America in 1492, yet there is plenty of evidence to suggest that others had visited America before Columbus:
including visitors from ancient Egypt, Phoenicia and medieval Europe.
Despite this modern authorities continue to push the line that "Columbus discovered America."
In point of fact Columbus himself never even set eyes upon America; the closest he got to the mainland of North America was Puerto Rico. However in the aftermath of Columbus's voyage John Cabot sailed from Bristol, England, which in turn opened the way for the first colony in Jamestown, Virginia and thus allowed the English to claim America as their own.
Yet there is considerable evidence that suggests that others from different cultures preceded Cabot and Columbus.
So one is forced to ask:
Why, when there is much to suggest that others from different cultures preceded Columbus, don't we hear more about this possibility being investigated? Could it be that certain powers have a vested interest in keeping our real history under wraps?
Whatever the answer the fact remains that a great deal has been unearthed which is completely at odds with conventional notions regarding the origins of what we know today as America.
In fact according to some contemporary authorities, the Native Americans encountered by the early settlers from England were not what they appeared to be.
They were indeed native to the Americas but they were not its original inhabitants, who according to various tribal legends, had disappeared eons before in a series of cataclysms.
Columbus Day? True Legacy - Cruelty and Slavery
Once again, it's time to celebrate Columbus Day. Yet, the stunning truth is: If Christopher Columbus were alive today, he would be put on trial for crimes against humanity.
Columbus' reign of terror, as documented by noted historians, was so bloody, his legacy so unspeakably cruel, that Columbus makes a modern villain like Saddam Hussein look like a pale codfish.
Question: Why do we honor a man who, if he were alive today, would almost certainly be sitting on Death Row awaiting execution?
If you'd like to know the true story about Christopher Columbus, please read on. But I warn you, it's not for the faint of heart.
Here's the basics. On the second Monday in October each year, we celebrate Columbus Day (this year, it's on October 11th). We teach our school kids a cute little song that goes: "In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue." It's an American tradition, as American as pizza pie. Or is it? Surprisingly, the true story of Christopher Columbus has very little in common with the myth we all learned in school.
Columbus Day, as we know it in the United States, was invented by the Knights of Columbus, a Catholic fraternal service organization. Back in the 1930s, they were looking for a Catholic hero as a role-model their kids could look up to. In 1934, as a result of lobbying by the Knights of Columbus, Congress and President Franklin Roosevelt signed Columbus Day into law as a federal holiday to honor this courageous explorer.
Or so we thought...
There are several problems with this. First of all, Columbus wasn't the first European to discover America. As we all know, the Viking, Leif Ericson probably founded a Norse village on Newfoundland some 500 years earlier. So, hat's off to Leif.
But if you think about it, the whole concept of discovering America is, well, arrogant.
After all, the Native Americans discovered North America about 14,000 years before Columbus was even born! Surprisingly, DNA evidence now suggests that courageous Polynesian adventurers sailed dugout canoes across the Pacific and settled in South America long before the Vikings.
Second, Columbus wasn't a hero. When he set foot on that sandy beach in the Bahamas on October 12, 1492, Columbus discovered that the islands were inhabited by friendly, peaceful people called the Lucayans, Taínos and Arawaks. Writing in his diary, Columbus said they were a handsome, smart and kind people.
He noted that the gentle Arawaks were remarkable for their hospitality.
"They offered to share with anyone and when you ask for something, they never say no," he said.
The Arawaks had no weapons; their society had neither criminals, prisons nor prisoners. They were so kind-hearted that Columbus noted in his diary that on the day the Santa Maria was shipwrecked, the Arawaks labored for hours to save his crew and cargo.
The native people were so honest that not one thing was missing.
Columbus was so impressed with the hard work of these gentle islanders, that he immediately seized their land for Spain and enslaved them to work in his brutal gold mines. Within only two years, 125,000 (half of the population) of the original natives on the island were dead.
Shockingly, Columbus supervised the selling of native girls into sexual slavery. Young girls of the ages 9 to 10 were the most desired by his men. In 1500, Columbus casually wrote about it in his log.
He said:
"A hundred castellanoes are as easily obtained for a woman as for a farm, and it is very general and there are plenty of dealers who go about looking for girls; those from nine to ten are now in demand."
He forced these peaceful natives work in his gold mines until they died of exhaustion.
If an "Indian" worker did not deliver his full quota of gold dust by Columbus' deadline, soldiers would cut off the man's hands and tie them around his neck to send a message. Slavery was so intolerable for these sweet, gentle island people that at one point, 100 of them committed mass suicide.
Catholic law forbade the enslavement of Christians, but Columbus solved this problem. He simply refused to baptize the native people of Hispaniola.
On his second trip to the New World, Columbus brought cannons and attack dogs. If a native resisted slavery, he would cut off a nose or an ear. If slaves tried to escape, Columbus had them burned alive. Other times, he sent attack dogs to hunt them down, and the dogs would tear off the arms and legs of the screaming natives while they were still alive.
If the Spaniards ran short of meat to feed the dogs, Arawak babies were killed for dog food.
Columbus' acts of cruelty were so unspeakable and so legendary - even in his own day - that Governor Francisco De Bobadilla arrested Columbus and his two brothers, slapped them into chains, and shipped them off to Spain to answer for their crimes against the Arawaks.
But the King and Queen of Spain, their treasury filling up with gold, pardoned Columbus and let him go free.
Christopher Columbus' Crimes Against Humanity
Source
To be sure, the real annihilations did not start until the beginning of Columbus' second voyage to the Americas in 1493 (1).
For while he had expressed admiration for the overall generosity of Indigenous People and considered the Tainos to be "Very handsome, gentle, and friendly," he interpreted all these positive traits as signs of weakness and vulnerability, saying,
"if devout religious persons knew the Indian Language well, all these people would soon become Christians."
As a consequence, he kidnapped some of the Tainos and took them back to Spain.
On his second voyage, in December 1494, Columbus captured 1,500 Tainos on the island of Hispaniola and herded them to Isabela, where 550 of "the best males and females" were forced aboard ships bound for the slave markets of Seville.
Under Columbus's leadership, the Spanish attacked the Taino, sparing neither men, women nor children. Warfare, forced labor, starvation and disease reduced Hispaniola's Taino population (estimated at one million to two million in 1492) to extinction within 30 years.
Furthermore, Columbus wrote a letter to the Spanish governor of the island, Hispaniola, Columbus asked the governor the cut off the ears and the noses of any of the slaves who resisted being subjugated to slavery.
…It is estimated that 100 million Indians from the Caribbean, Central, South, and North America perished at the hands of the European invaders. Sadly, unbelievably, really, much of that wholesale destruction was sanctioned and carried out by the Roman Catholic Church and various Protestant denominations. (1: p.37)
One of Columbus' men, Bartolome De Las Casas, was so mortified by Columbus' brutal atrocities against the native peoples, that he quit working for Columbus and became a Catholic priest.
He described how the Spaniards under Columbus' command cut off the legs of children who ran from them, to test the sharpness of their blades.
According to De Las Casas, the men made bets as to who, with one sweep of his sword, could cut a person in half. He says that Columbus' men poured people full of boiling soap.
In a single day, De Las Casas was an eye witness as the Spanish soldiers dismembered, beheaded, or raped 3000 native people.
"Such inhumanities and barbarisms were committed in my sight as no age can parallel," De Las Casas wrote. "My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature that now I tremble as I write."
De Las Casas spent the rest of his life trying to protect the helpless native people.
But after a while, there were no more natives to protect. Experts generally agree that before 1492, the population on the island of Hispaniola probably numbered above 3 million. Within 20 years of Spanish arrival, it was reduced to only 60,000.
Within 50 years, not a single original native inhabitant could be found.
IN 1492
Columbus Day Poem Taught to U.S. School Children

In fourteen hundred ninety-twoColumbus sailed the ocean blue.
He had three ships and left from Spain;He sailed through sunshine, wind and rain.
He sailed by night; he sailed by day;He used the stars to find his way.
A compass also helped him knowHow to find the way to go.
Ninety sailors were on board; Some men worked while others snored.
Then the workers went to sleep;And others watched the ocean deep.
Day after day they looked for land;They dreamed of trees and rocks and sand.
October 12 their dream came true,You never saw a happier crew !
"Indians! Indians!" Columbus cried;His heart was filled with joyful pride
But "India" the land was not;It was the Bahamas, and it was hot .
The Arakawa natives were very nice;They gave the sailors food and spice.
Columbus sailed on to find some goldTo bring back home, as he'd been told.
He made the trip again and again,Trading gold to bring to Spain.
The first American? No, not quite.But Columbus was brave, and he was bright.

Conventional History

Columbus Day first became an official state holiday in Colorado in 1906, and became a federal holiday in the United States in 1937, though people have celebrated Columbus' voyage since the colonial period.
In 1792, New York City and other U.S. cities celebrated the 300th anniversary of his landing in the New World.
President Benjamin Harrison called upon the people of the United States to celebrate Columbus Day on the 400th anniversary of the event. During the four hundredth anniversary in 1892, teachers, preachers, poets and politicians used Columbus Day rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These patriotic rituals were framed around themes such as support for war, citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and celebrating social progress.
Catholic immigration in the mid-19th century induced discrimination from anti-immigrant activists.
Like many other immigrant communities, Catholics developed organizations to fight discrimination and provide insurance for the struggling immigrants. One such organization, the Knights of Columbus, chose that name in part because it saw Christopher Columbus as a fitting symbol of Catholic immigrants' right to citizenship: one of their own, a fellow Catholic, had discovered America.
Many Italian-Americans observe Columbus Day as a celebration of their heritage, the first occasion being in New York City on October 12, 1866.
Columbus Day was first popularized as a holiday in the United States through the lobbying of Angelo Noce, a first generation Italian, in Denver. The first official, regular Columbus Day holiday was proclaimed by Colorado governor Jesse F. McDonald in 1905 and made a statutory holiday in 1907.
In April 1934, as a result of lobbying by the Knights of Columbus, Congress and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt made October 12 a federal holiday under the name Columbus Day.
A Significant movement is spreading to rename this day 'Indigenous People's Day'. It could/would begin the healing to right the wrongs done to so many by the Conquistador's of white European Man, of which most are of our ancestral heritages.Petition here
Indigenous Natives lived with the land, air and waterways for thousands and thousands of years and never thought to own or despoil their Mother's and Father's who gave Life to all.
Today, we are losing 200 species a day, globally, many waterways in the U.S., like the Navarro River where I live, no longer have salmon and trout come up the river or like the halibut, snapper, rock fish, salmon, etc. that are fished out along the West Coast.
What a huge step it would be for this country if we could begin to ask forgiveness, make reparations and put these proud Natives in places of leadership to teach us how to be good stewards and hold deep reverence and respect for Nature so that she may heal and provide for the next seven generations to come.
RECONSIDER COLUMBUS DAY AD
Columbus Day, a day that our government has deemed worthy of remembrance.
But with all due respect - with all due respect - with all due respect, there's an ugly truth that has been overlooked for way too long. Columbus committed heinous crimes against the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean and millions of natives throughout the Americas.
And Columbus set the stage for the slave trade in the New World. So, please, please reconsider if this is a man you want to honor. Reconsider if you want to celebrate the crimes of Columbus. It's not your fault; it happened a long time ago.
But remaining neutral and pretending like it didn't happen, or that it doesn't still impact us today?
So, please, take the day to learn the whole story: VIDEO

Righting the Great Wrong - Happy 'Native Indigenous People's Day'
Source
For christsakes, the guy C.C. thought he was in INDIA or so the story goes!
He then found the indigenous people so giving, he went back to get 14 more galleon ships to steal, pillage, rape and conquer the peaceful people throughout the Caribbean, South and North America's. For an excellent overview of the plight of the 'loser's' to American hegemony over the centuries read Howard Zinn's A People's History of The United States, as told by those that suffered at the hands of the invaders.)
As the nation commemorates the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the so-called "New World" in 1492, indigenous activists at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado, are pushing for schools to teach the "real history of the Americas" and to celebrate indigenous culture.
"Columbus Day" has long evoked sadness and anger amongst people of color, especially Native Americans, who object to honoring a man who opened the door to European colonization, the exploitation of native peoples, and the slave trade.
We're joined by three guests involved with the "Real History of the Americas" day:
Esther Belin, a writing instructor at Fort Lewis College and a member of the Navajo Nation Shirena Trujillo Long, coordinator of El Centro de Muchos Colores at Fort Lewis College and chair of the the Real History of the Americas Committee student activist Noel Altaha, a member of the White Mountain Apache Tribe and Fort Lewis College senior

"We may fairly agree that the subject of history, as commonly taught, is one of the most boring of all subjects. However, the study of how the subject of history has been manipulated is surely one of the most interesting of all subjects." - Michael Tsarion "Astrotheology and Sidereal Mythology"

"The official story that Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas is ludicrous.
A few miles from Edinburgh in Scotland today still stands Rosslyn Chapel, that holy grail of the Brotherhood Elite. It was built in the shape of a Templar cross by the St Clair-Sinclair family and is a mass of esoteric symbolism.
The foundations were laid in 1446 and it was completed in the 1480s. How remarkable then that the stonework at Rosslyn includes depictions of sweetcorn and cacti which were only found in America and Christopher Columbus did not 'discover' that continent until 1492! How could this be? There is, in fact, no mystery. Christopher Columbus was not even nearly the first white person to land in the Americas.
The Phoenicians, Norse, Irish, Welsh, Bretons, Basques and Portuguese, all sailed to America before him and so did Prince Henry Sinclair of Rosslyn, as documented in a rare book by Frederick I. Pohl called Prince Henry Sinclair's Voyage To The New World 1398.
Sinclair made the journey with another Brotherhood bloodline, the Zeno family, one of the most prominent Black Nobility families in Venice. Sinclair and Antonio Zeno landed in what we call Newfoundland and went ashore in Nova Scotia (New Scotland) in 1398…
The Brotherhood had known about the Americas for thousands of years and Christopher Columbus was used to make the official discovery so that the occupation of the Americas could begin." David Icke, "The Biggest Secret" 178-9
Columbus' supporters were European royalty and the Templars.
His father-in-law was a former Templar Knight and Catherine de Medici of the Illuminati bloodline (along with others) financed his voyage. Columbus' three ships sailed under the Templars Red Cross flag, used today by the Red Cross and Switzerland.
The royals also sent out fleets of conquistadors and swash-buckling pirates flying the Skull and Bones flag - their orders to rape, kill, and pillage all they could from the New World.
"The Skull and Bones cross used by the secret society comes from the pirate skull and cross bones.
They weren't just a bunch of swashbucklers like you've seen in the movies. No, these were agents sent onto the high seas by the British royal family to colonize the Americas." Michael Tsarion "The Subversive Use of Sacred Symbolism in the Media" Lecture, Conspiracy Con 2003
A Little Matter of Genocide - Ward Churchill
Source
During the four centuries spanning the time between 1492, when Christopher Columbus first set foot on the 'New World' of a Caribbean beach and 1892, when the US Census Bureau concluded that there were fewer than a quarter-million indigenous people surviving within the country's boundaries, a hemispheric population estimated to have been as great as 125 million was reduced by something over 90 percent.
The people had died in their millions of being hacked apart with axes and swords, buried alive and trampled under horses, hunted as game and fed to dogs, shot, beaten, stabbed, scalped for bounty, hanged on meat-hooks and thrown over the sides of ships at sea, worked to death as slave laborers, intentionally starved and frozen to death during a multitude of forced marches and internments, and, in an unknown number of instances, deliberately infected with epidemic diseases. (p. 1)
Later in the book he gives a staggering estimate of the total who were 'ethnically cleansed':
'All told, it is probable that more than one hundred million native people were 'eliminated' in the course of Europe's ongoing 'civilization' of the western hemisphere.' (p. 86)
Although Ward Churchill has not written fully on the genocide against the Palestinians, he does place it within the global context of the present book, A Little Matter of Genocide, a book which leapt out at me from a display of books by and about native Americans in City Lights Book Store.
The author is an enrolled Keetoowah Cherokee and Professor of American Indian Studies in the Department of Ethnic Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder and has been a leader of the Colorado Chapter of the American Indian Movement since 1972.
The title of the book is taken from a statement by Russell Means, founder of the American Indian Movement, who spoke of 'a little matter of genocide right here at home,' by which he meant the ongoing genocide against the American Indians which is still in progress.
A Little Matter of Genocide
The U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Comes Clean 185 years later
Source
"Immediately upon its establishment in 1824, the Office of Indian Affairs was an instrument by which the United States enforced its ambition against the Indian nations. As the nation expanded West, the agency participated in the ethnic cleansing that befell the western tribes.
War begets tragedy, but the deliberate spread of disease, the decimation of the bison herds, the use of alcohol to destroy mind and body, and the cowardly killing of women and children made for tragedy on a scale so ghastly that it cannot be dismissed as merely the inevitable consequence of the clash of competing ways of life.
After the devastation of tribal economies, the BIA set out to destroy all things Indian by forbidding the speaking of Indian languages, prohibiting traditional religious activities, outlawing traditional government, and making Indians ashamed of who they were.
Worst of all, the BIA committed these acts against the children entrusted to its boarding schools.
The trauma of shame, fear, and anger has passed from one generation to the next, and manifests itself in the rampant alcoholism, drug abuse, and domestic violence that plague Indian country.
The BIA expresses its profound sorrow for these wrongs, extends this formal apology to Indian people for its historical conduct, and makes promises for its future conduct."
More at "A Little Matter of Genocide - Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present".
The Canary Effect
The Canary Effect is a 2006 documentary that looks into the effects of that the United States and its policies have on the Indigenous peoples (Native Americans) who are residents.
It premiered at the Tribeca Film Festival and won the Stanley Kubrick Award at the 2006 Traverse City Film Festival (Michael Moore hosts).
The movie was directed by Robin Davey and Yellow Thunder Woman, who are both members of LA Based alternative pop group The Bastard Fairies.
Delving deeply into the often misunderstood and frequently over looked historic realities of the American Indian, The Canary Effect follows the terrifying and horrific abuses instilled upon the Indigenous people of North America, and details the genocidal practices of the US government and its continuing affects on present day Indian country.
Featuring interviews with the leading scholars and experts on Indian issues including controversial author Ward Churchill, the film brings together the past and present in a way never before captured so eloquently and boldly on film.
VIDEO

The U.S. Government Native Indian Re-education Program
Source

African American slavery, Indigenous People's genocide, Japanese Interment in WWII, Chinese banashment, Women Suffrage and now we turn on those humans of Muslim faith to dominate and eradicate.

DENNIS BANKS: I was in the boarding schools when punishment was very severe if you ran away.
This was during the early '40s. I was taken to a boarding school when I was four years old, and taken away from my mother and my father, my grandparents, who I stayed with most of the time, and just abruptly taken away and then put into the boarding school, 300 miles away from our home.
And, you know, the beatings began immediately, the - almost the de-Indianizing program. It was a terrible experience that the American government was experimenting with. And that was trying to destroy the culture and the person, destroy the Indian-ness in him and save the human being, save the - kill an Indian, save the man.
That was, you know, the description of what this policy is about, about trying to -
AMY GOODMAN: Now, the government ran the schools?
DENNIS BANKS: The U.S. government paid - of course, they ran a lot of the schools themselves, but they also delegated a lot of it to the Christians, Christian communities.
The Catholics had some. The Episcopalians had some. The Lutherans had some. Methodists had some. And so, it was like a complicit - there was complicity between the churches and the state in taking care of Indian problem, solving the Indian problem, and trying to change who we were.
AMY GOODMAN: Dennis, where had - where had you lived? Where had you lived, and where were you brought to school?
DENNIS BANKS: I lived on the federal - or, on the Leech Lake Indian Reservation, where I was born, in northern Minnesota. And I was taken to a boarding school 300 miles away to the south, southernmost part of Minnesota, the southwestern part, called Pipestone Indian School. I stayed there three years - six years -
AMY GOODMAN: And how -
DENNIS BANKS: Go ahead.
AMY GOODMAN: How did you communicate with your family? And how often did you get to see them? Did you get to talk to them?
DENNIS BANKS: Never. Never.
You know, they cut off all communication with your parents, and a lot of letters, which I found later in - I stayed there for six years without communicating to - with my parents at all. And finally, they let us go home for six years. Of course, we couldn't speak the language. We could speak only English and - what these young people were talking about.
But there was severe punishment for running away from that kind of system. I ran away. I kept running away. Almost once a week, I'd run away from those schools. They'd catch me. They'd bring me back to the school, beat me. And it was - it was terrible.
I mean, there was other kinds of punishment that we went through, as well. And it was - now that, it was a - that kind of experience, I still remember what it is like today. And I have a friend who has been - who had been my friend for over 70 years now, and we remember those days.
There were - we stuck together. A lot of people stuck together. Just being together, that's what saved a lot of us from terrible consequences of speaking. But eventually, they - you know, they kept beating me down, and I kept - so I started learning English, and I started learning who the presidents were. I started learning all that stuff.
And then they let me go home for 30 days. Six years. And I asked my mother, I said, "Why didn't you write to me?" And she - you know, and she says, "I did." But I never - I never questioned beyond that. And then there was - they sent me to another boarding school in North Dakota, another 200 miles away. I was there for three years.
And then, after that, same thing: no - only English, you know, corporal punishment. And then I went home for another 30 days, asked my mother, "Why is it you didn't write to me again?" She says, "I did, and I did."
Then they sent me to another boarding school in South Dakota further away, so another 400 miles. I kept running away from these schools. And I finally ran away from the last one, and I finally made it home.
And it wasn't 'til almost just three years ago when my daughter was - they were doing a documentary on Dennis Banks, and they found - they went to - in the federal depository records in Kansas City.
And she called me, and she says, "Dad, we found" - "Dad," she said, "we found your - we found your school records." And I said, "Bring them back." So she brought them back, and I started looking at them. And she says, "Dad, we also found something else."
She handed me a shoebox. And I opened up the shoebox, and those were letters, letters from my mother. And I started opening them up, and I started reading them.
And in the second one, there was a letter to the superintendent of the school that said,
"Here is $5. Please send my children - my son back home to me."


"Make no mistake, we will close Guantanamo prison, which has damaged our national security interests and become a tremendous recruiting tool for al-Qaeda" President Barack Obama

Not much has changed since 1492...!
submitted by CuteBananaMuffin to conspiracy [link] [comments]

The Story of 'Il Bello', Eugenio Castellotti

Hey y'all, been a while away thanks to university, and it kinda sucked the wind out of me writing stuff about F1 for a while. But never mind that, I'm back.
Or for those who are new to the subreddit, hi. I write some historical F1 stuff when time permits.
This isn't a Random Driver Highlight, no it isn't. I wanted to write about this driver really, REALLY bad. So I decided, screw it, I'll write about him, probably my 'historical hero' of Formula One. I might write more about some more drivers in F1 history that I feel like writing about, but my writing production may be limited.
This driver's story isn't that unknown, given how F1 Racing released a publication on him just a year ago. However, for a story as spectacular as this, I'm surprised it isn't retold more. He was F1's youngest polesitter at one point in time. He is directly involved with the death of a legend of a sport. His rookie season is one of the best in F1 history. He dated a rather famous Italian celebrity that got them on gossip pages. And he was very, very handsome. Like, ridiculously handsome.
This is the story of Eugenio Castellotti.

Eugenio Castellotti

STATISTICS
Nationality: Italian
Years in F1: 1955-57
Teams Raced For: Lancia, Ferrari
Entries: 14
Starts: 14
Podium Finishes: 3
Pole Positions: 1 (1955 Belgian Grand Prix)
Points: 19.5
Highest Finish: 2nd (Twice -- 1955 Monaco and 1956 French Grands Prix)
Good looks: On a scale from 1-10, he was a goddamn 17.

Part 1: Baby You're a Rich Kid

Every report on how Castellotti began his career states that it was due to his wealth, being able to buy a Ferrari sportscar at the young age of 20. Most 20 year-olds would be worrying about paying off their university fees, but here was Eugenio, buying himself a Ferrari. So, naturally, the narrative was that he had a mollycoddled childhood by two rich, wealthy parents and was able to buy his way into motorsport. Right?
Well...not quite. I think. His mother, Angela, according to some accounts, was unmarried and only sixteen when she gave birth to Eugenio. Not to mention that his father, a very, very wealthy lawyer, reportedly first met Eugenio at the age 9. Most other sources just hook onto the fact that his family was wealthy, but if the above is true, that his dad impregnated someone at 16 and didn't bother taking care of their child until nine years later, life may not have been that rosy for young Eugenio as some sources claim.
Eugenio, however, quickly gained a fascination for cars, and supposedly learned how to drive through the Castellotti's family driver. As he grew up, he even tried to fake his age to obtain a driving license. Despite the probable family tensions between his mom and his dad for, well, that situation, there was one thing that both his parents agreed on: that Castellotti should not race. They became increasingly restrictive with Castellotti's passion, but that probably drove young Eugenio further into getting a racing career.
This was until his dad died when Eugenio was either 12 or 19. I don't know this for sure as sources are picky, but more sources point towards 19. Because, when his dad died, he left a massive, and I mean massive, inheritance to Eugenio. I don't know how much, but damn if it didn't look like Loadsamoney. From there, Eugenio went into a manic shopping spree, often fancying finely-tailored suits here and there. However, still against his mother's wishes, Eugenio used his money to explore his passion, motor racing.
And that's how Eugenio Castellotti bought his first Ferrari, a 166MM sportscar, at the young age of 20. But, unlike most ridiculously rich youth of the generation, he didn't buy the 166MM to stare at it in his garage every once in a while. He was going to race it.
However, Castellotti figured that the best way to start off racing wouldn't be a few simple club races, oh no. His first race was the gruelling 1,080-kilometre Tour of Sicily, where he unsurprisingly failed to finish. Not to be perturbed by this little blip, Castellotti opted to enter the frikin' Mille Miglia, or 1000 Miles in Italian, probably one of the grandest road races ever. There, he actually finished a credible 6th in class and 50th in an overall field of 322 starters. As inexperienced as he was, Castellotti proved he wasn't just a regular rich kid who bought his way into racing. His first two races were only two of the toughest sportscar races, and by golly did he do well.
Into 1952, and Castellotti's form in sportscars just got better and better over time, leading to his first win in the Gold Cup at Pescara. Buoyed by all this success, he felt it was about time he entered the grandest event of all, the Monaco Grand Prix. However, it wouldn't be his first Formula One start. The Monaco Grand Prix was going through some financial difficulties, and with radical changes in rules in the World Driver's Championship, the organisers played a safe bet and hosted the 1952 Grand Prix for sports cars instead.
That's not to say the field was any weaker, though. A number of British up-and-comers like Stirling Moss and Peter Collins entered, not to mention crafty French veterans in Robert Manzon and Louis Rosier. Entering a Grand Prix of such prestige so early in his career, Castellotti would have his work cut out for him.
However, Castellotti showed an oddly cool head when everyone lost theirs, especially when Stirling Moss and other drivers ploughed into Reg Parnell's broken down Aston Martin. Following the pile-up it would be Castellotti who would inherit the lead from Vittorio Marzotto. However, the heat would take its both drivers and cars, and both had to make a mandatory pit stop to attend to both the cars and drivers.
According to urban legend, when Castellotti stopped, he also requested for a bottle of Coke. Apparently, this slowed Castellotti's stop significantly, maybe because Coke was hard to source in Monaco, or Castellotti just had to sip Coke leisurely, I don't know. Whatever the case, this was enough to hand the lead back to Marzotto, who went on to win the Monaco Grand Prix.
Castellotti's performance, where he lost the Monaco Grand Prix to a bottle of Coke, didn't go unnoticed, though, and despite a lucky escape in Vila Real where marshals carried him out of the way from an oncoming pileup, through the next two years, including a win at the Portuguese Grand Prix in 1952 and the Messina 10 hours in 1953.
His shot at the big time, though, was just on the horizon. And it would come from none other than the reigning champion of Formula 1, Alberto Ascari.

Part 2: Lancia's Lancer

In his career so far, Castellotti had just been entering races as a privateer, mainly entering with Ferrari's purchased from his father's inheritance. Being a relatively youthful driver in the sport, he was seen as one of Italy's brightest young talents to carry Italy's motorsport image into the future, so he was probably in high demand. It would probably be just a matter of time before he got snapped up.
Then he met Alberto Ascari. Holder of the record for most consecutive victories in F1 at the time (and all the way until 2013) and had secured his second consecutive World Driver's Championship by the time of the Italian Grand Prix, when he met the young Castellotti. Despite his service for Ferrari, pay disputes and other issues led the current reigning champion to leave the Prancing Horse and join, out of all teams, Lancia, who were all set to make their leap into Formula One.
And, out of all people, Ascari hand-picked both his mentor, Luigi Villoresi, and his now-protege, Eugenio Castellotti, to join him in Lancia. Yep, he was handpicked by probably the best driver in the world to not only be his teammate for the upcoming season, but also taken under his wing as his protege.
Lancia had doubts over his drive, though, after a dismal showing at the Nurburgring 1000km, but those doubts were cast aside after a brilliant third place in the Carrera Panamericana. Heck, sources say him and teammate Piero Taruffi could have actually contested for the win, but received orders from above to hold station behind leader Fangio to play it safe, already having a massive lead to the rest of the field and to keep a 1-2-3 finish for Lancia.
However, for 1954, Lancia's F1 project encountered delay after delay. Not quite as delayed as "The Thief and the Cobbler", but still, delayed by a lot. So much so that they let Ascari and Villoresi race for other teams while they continued to toil over their chassis.
Castellotti, meanwhile, didn't follow down their path. He remained loyal to Lancia and, as their 'junior driver', was given the opportunity to race in a multitude of sportscar events. However, instead of anticipated success, Eugenio recorded DNF after DNF after DNF in many sportscar races, from the Sebring 12 hours to Mille Miglia to Targa Florio, poor Castellotti didn't have anything going right for him in 1954, save for winning his second Italian Mountain Championship on the trot in hillclimbing. And when Lancia were finally able to enter their long-awaited D50 in the season-closing race at Spain, they only had enough for Ascari and Villoresi, leaving Castellotti by the sidelines once again.
1955 came around, and finally Lancia were ready with their D50 project. It took a while, but come the Argentine Grand Prix, Eugenio was all ready to step foot into the big leagues, Formula One. However, as most people who know their F1 history, the 1955 Argentine Grand Prix was probably the worst race possible to take your first steps in F1. The heat was held in mind-melting temperatures reaching 40 degrees Celsius.
Not only was it mind-melting, but also car-melting. This proved to be the case when Villoresi's Lancia gave up on lap 2. As shared drives were essentially part-and-parcel with Formula One at the time, Castellotti was relieved by Villoresi on lap 20 to cut his first Formula One start short. Probably mercifully, too, as Villoresi wrecked the Lancia just 15 laps later.
The next race for him at Monaco, though, finally showed off what Castellotti was capable of. He qualified a stellar fourth in just his second race for Lancia, and in his first lap, moved up the field with a great start and this downright bonkers overtake for 1955 standards on Stirling Moss at the station hairpin to take second on lap one. After a crazy battle with Moss early on, Moss's Mercedes dominance won out and Castellotti settled into a battle for third with teammate Ascari and Jean Behra.
In that battle, though, Castellotti cut a tyre after driving too aggressively and mounting several kerbs on the streets of Monaco, forcing a pitstop that dropped him to ninth, essentially being a precursor to the crazed, balls-out driving style that Castellotti would go on to develop with time in future Formula One starts. However, the dashing youngster here was only in his second race, and yet, thanks to some retirements and some seriously impressive driving, Castellotti came in second place in just his second Grand Prix start, a result that undoubtedly would've been a victory had it not been for the tyre trouble mentioned earlier.
One of those retirements, though, was his mentor and teammate, Ascari, as he ploughed through barriers and past bollards into the Monaco harbour in one of F1's most famous crashes never filmed, primarily because all the focus was on Stirling Moss' smoking Mercedes just ahead in the pitlane. Despite the frightening looking crash and the aftermath, Ascari mercifully left the accident scene with nothing more than a broken nose.
This was bad for Castellotti, as just the week after that, he and Ascari were teaming up to drive a Ferrari 750 Monza for the Supercortemaggiore in Monza. On the 26th of May, 1955, Castellotti and Villoresi were ready to test the unpainted, newly developed car before the race, and had invited Ascari to spectate, probably to give advice to young Eugenio like he always had, or just to see how the car handled before their upcoming event. Impulsively, during a break in action before lunch, Ascari elected to drive the car for a few laps. Some say it was to test the car he was due to race in a couple of days, others say it was to test his psyche and get back on track after his mammoth crash in Monaco.
Dressed in a suit and tie, he didn't have any racing gear on him, especially his lucky blue helmet, still under repair from his accident in Monaco. So, without thinking, he borrowed Castellotti's helmet and set out for a few laps. On the third lap, at Curva Vialone, Ascari spun out, either due to ill-effects from Monaco, distractions from his flapping tie, or someone or something crossing the track ahead of him. The car proceeded to somersault, killing the two-time champion.
Castellotti was distraught. He was one of the first at the scene and saw his close friend and mentor pass in front of his very eyes. He lent Ascari his helmet that allowed him to test the car in the first place. Emotionally, he was probably a mess. Yet, at the same time, he was probably more driven than ever.
Which was why it came to be a shock when Lancia announced their immediate withdrawal from Formula One. It was partially due to the loss of their stalwart, but financial problems had also been piling on the Italian outfit, which was the main reason for their withdrawal. Unperturbed, though, Castellotti begged them to participate in the upcoming Belgian Grand Prix. Lancia couldn't send their team to Belgium, though, so they just lent Castellotti two of their D50s to enter as a privateer.
Full of emotion, Eugenio arrived at Spa with a fire lit under him. The Mercedes team were clearly the team to beat, and with the revolutionary W196, looked near unstoppable through the season. Castellotti hadn't even been to Spa before today. And yet, on the first day of practice, his lap times were falling rapidly on the near nine-mile circuit. As the day came to a close, Castellotti had already run a full-race distance in practice. But on one of his last laps, the time he set was a purely incredible 4:18.1. Half a second better than Fangio, a full second ahead of Moss. And, luckily for Castellotti, the second day was completely rained out.
All this meant that Eugenio Castellotti, in just his third Grand Prix, following the recent death of his mentor and close friend, after the withdrawal of his team and entering the race all by himself, had just beaten the near-unbeatable Mercedes to become the youngest polesitter in Formula One history.
Although his Lancia was eventually outpaced on race day by the Mercs and retired from a still-impressive third place with transmission issues, there was almost no doubt in many people's minds, that he truly was the next Ascari.
Well, one of two potential future Ascaris.

Part 3: Ferrari's Future

After the closure of Lancia, Ferrari had snapped up most of their assets, and this included Castellotti, the Prancing Horse having been impressed by the promise shown by their young countryman. Indeed, it was out with the old, in with the new at Ferrari, as Nino Farina was forced to scale back his racing commitments due to persistent injuries, and so in stepped Castellotti for the next race at the Netherlands.
The next two results weren't exactly the greatest for Eugenio, salvaging a 5th in a troublesome Ferrari in Zandvoort and transmission issues plaguing him all weekend in Aintree, retiring from his main entry, and substituting Mike Hawthorn late in the race only guaranteed them a then sixth place finish, which scored them nul points back in the 50's.
The season-ending Italian Grand Prix, though, was his first real great race for Ferrari. Having acquired the Lancia D50's, Ferrari elected to race them for the Italian Grand Prix, seeing them as much faster than the Ferrari 625s and 555s they had with them. However, throughout practice, both D50's suffered intense tyre wear with the Ferrari-contracted Englebert tyres on the oval banking as opposed to the Pirelli tyres it was designed for. So, after qualifying 4th, Castellotti switched to the supposedly lesser-competitive 555 for the race. For the opening portions of the race, he surprised everyone by sticking with the four dominant Mercedes machines, giving the tifosi something to cheer about. However, ragged Eugenio slowly fell off the pace. And up stepped his rival.
Luigi Musso was born into nobility in Rome in 1924. Being a few years Castellotti's senior, he had an earlier start into racing than him, and had impressed for the Maserati in most of his starts, including a podium in the Spanish Grand Prix and a couple of wins in non-championship Grand Prix. And him being a Roman driving for Maserati, he simply couldn't let a Milanese driving for Ferrari beat him in their home Grand Prix. So, for a good twenty-odd laps, the two battled hard, being separated by a matter of inches at some point in the Grand Prix.
Eventually, Castellotti won out as Musso's Maserati petered out after the intense battle. And with that battle won and the retirement of a few Mercedes machines, Eugenio salvaged a podium for Ferrari in their home race, ending the season with 12 total points. With other drivers like Farina and Hans Herrmann unable to complete a full season due to injury, and the inconsistency of others like Trintignant and Musso in such a short season, these 12 points were enough for Castellotti to finish third in the World Driver's Championship, best of the rest behind the Mercedes duo of Fangio and Moss. This was the best championship finish for a debutant in F1, a record that would be equalled, but never beaten for 41 years before Jacques Villeneuve finished 2nd in the 1996 championship, a record equalled by Lewis Hamilton in 2007.
Enzo Ferrari kept his services for 1956, where they'd be using the D50, now badged as a 'Lancia-Ferrari', that Castellotti had used to good effect the previous season. However, Castellotti wasn't going to spearhead the team, as with Mercedes' withdrawal from motorsport following the Le Mans disaster, Fangio made waves by signing for Ferrari. Also signing for Ferrari was Luigi Musso, setting the scene for a potential rivalry between the two rising Italian stars. Among the two, though, Ferrari seemed to prefer Castellotti, being selected to pair with Fangio for major endurance races that year, while Musso was stuck with Schell.
In Formula One, though, Musso got the early upper hand when a shared drive with Fangio led to victory for the pair of them, though that only really came to pass when multiple drivers, including Castellotti, had all sorts of mechanical issues.
If you recall from earlier, Castellotti had developed a reputation as being a wild driver, often blasting off straight from the gate before wearing out as the race goes on. However, given all that I've seen from nearly every source about Castellotti's wild driving style, it's all the more puzzling that his greatest triumphs in 1956 came in endurance racing, out of all things. The first of such victories came in the 12 hours of Sebring, where he and Fangio fought off the challenge of the Jaguar squad in the fastest Sebring 12 hours at the time. His second victory, however, was more impressive.
Back in the previous year's Mille Miglia, Castellotti was embarrassingly dominated by Moss and Denis Jenkinson before his retirement with tyre issues. He would find out later that Moss and Jenkinson were using a navigation system, which would later turn out to be a prototype for pace notes now commonly used in rallying events. Upon Jenkinson letting him know of the news, Eugenio simply shook his head, saying he couldn't possibly drive with such a navigation system.
Besides, come 1956, Castellotti would enter the Mille Miglia by himself, so there was no navigator for him to follow. If that wasn't so much of a disadvantage for him, it was made worse as the weather conditions started to turn especially nasty. Normally, drivers as manic as him would fall victim to the conditions. Indeed, another young, manic driver attempting to make a name for himself that race was Wolfgang von Trips, who, while chasing the leading driver, tripped over the tricky conditions. (I swear I'm a natural comedian guys).
But that leading driver von Trips was chasing was none other than Castellotti himself. In rain that essentially blinded the roads ahead and ferocious winds, Castellotti wasn't even fazed. He never put a foot wrong. And apart from a short stint where he had to refuel, through each control point on the course, Castellotti never lost the lead for the full 1000 miles.
Yes, you heard right. Never. Lost. The. Lead.
Denis Jenkinson, co-driver to Moss, would comment on the event: "We were not racing against Musso, Castellotti or Fangio; it seemed that we were fighting for the mere right to go on living.". And yet, in this battle for survival, Castellotti turned it into a driving masterclass. And, despite the undeniable truth that having a navigator in a thousand-mile road race would certainly help, Castellotti pulled this off all by himself. What an absolute legend.
Back to Formula One, though, his performances weren't so legendary. One thing he was very good at was qualifying, as evidenced when StatsF1 placed him 13th all-time in best average qualifying performances (min. 10 GP starts). On race-day, his starts would be fantastic, but more often than not, a whole bevy of mechanical problems would drop him down the grid. This was the case for most of 1956, retiring from 3rd in Argentina, 5th in Monaco and 4th in Belgium despite having promising starts in all these races.
In France, he got a similarly fantastic start, and actually led for a few early laps before seceding the lead to Fangio. However, once Fangio retired, Castellotti was all but in the clear and seemed to be destined to win his first ever Grand Prix and the spearhead in a Ferrari 1-2. However, teammate Peter Collins was competing for the title, and so the order was given through the pit-board for Collins to pass Castellotti for the win. One of the earliest examples of team-orders lost Castellotti his chance for an F1 victory, but he still trailed Peter Collins right on his bumper, being separated by just 0.3 seconds at the line.
After these performances, though, the wild side of Eugenio came back to form, having probably the worst race of his F1 career to date in Silverstone, dicing with many local entries and spinning out on the opening lap at the Nurburgring. Teammate and rival Musso had also had a rough season, with a crash in a sportscar event sidelining him for a couple events, not to mention every other race since his shared win in Argentina has ended with him failing to finish. With just one event left in the calendar, their home race in Monza, both Castellotti and Musso were determined to make the race their highlight of 1956. And neither wanted to give way.
Their team leader, Fangio, was well aware of their competition, despite being in a championship hunt at the time. He also remembered how the D50s ripped every tyre to shreds in the last Italian Grand Prix, so he gave Eugenio and Musso sage advice. He'd lead the way so Castellotti and Musso could pace their laps without destroying any tyres. With ten laps, he'd pull over and let Castellotti and Musso duke it out for the finish, keirin style.
Measured and steady was the advice from Fangio to the young drivers. But they didn't listen.
Instead, Musso and Castellotti went for a BALLS OUT, FLAT-OUT, BAT OUT OF HELL, NO FUCKS GIVEN, MY DICK IS BIGGER THAN YOURS, TRADIN' PAINT scrapheap for the lead the moment the green flag dropped. Castellotti was the leader for the majority of this intense battle, but Musso was nowhere near giving up. It was the battle the tifosi wanted, the two Italian drivers for the Prancing Horse, battling for supremacy on hallowed racing ground.
Of course, this battle couldn't last forever. Fangio's advice was right. The tyres on both Musso's and Castellotti's cars didn't last the whole race. They didn't even last for half distance. Heck, not even quarter-distance.
Both of their tyres completely wore out their threads by lap 4. You heard me. Lap. FOUR.
Worse for Castellotti, his stop was a measure longer than Musso's and was left playing the catch-up game. Paying no heed to his earlier lesson or Fangio's prior advice, he continued the PEDAL TO THE METAL, I DON'T GIVE A DAMN, DON'T LIFT OR YOU'RE A PUSSY strategy to catch up to Musso. And by lap nine, his tyre punctured yet again and sent him spinning onto the main straight, ending his race.
By all accounts, his 1956 season, results wise, wasn't the best. Just the two points finishes left him sixth in the championship, though to be fair his pace was far, far greater than those results indicate. In fact, over on GP Rejects, I ran an alternative championship where points were scored after just three laps. And, spoilers, CASTELLOTTI FREAKIN' WON (though admittedly thanks to dropped scores, but still).
What's more, he had plenty of things to smile about that year outside of F1. Securing his seat at Ferrari. Sharing the win with El Maestro at the Sebring 12 Hours. And finally dominating the field at the Mille Miglia. And it's not just racing achievements Castellotti had to smile about as well.

Part 4: Il Bello

Most drivers from the 50's had cool-ass nicknames. Fangio was El Maestro, also known as 'The Master'. Jose Froilan Gonzalez was known as The Pampas Bull. Luigi Fagioli was known as the goddamn ABRUZZI ROBBER. Seriously, if you were a racing driver in the 50's, it was almost part and parcel that you'd get a dope-ass nickname as a reward.
So, when Castellotti got his nickname, there was only one obvious choice: Il Bello. Put simply, The Beautiful.
And goddamn, he was beautiful. So. Damn. Beautiful. That perfect chin, the neat at hell hairstyle, those pecs...
...wait, where was I? Right. Ahem. Yeah, he was called Il Bello, and for good reason. Castellotti was ridiculously vain. He wore the finest of suits and shirts tailored exactly to how he wanted it. He kept his hair in perfect shape. He was even self-conscious about his lack of height, so much so that he often wore lifts in his shoes. He didn't earn the nickname Il Bello for nothing. And likewise, he didn't put the nickname to waste either.
Partly because of his vanity, Castellotti was definitely a ladies man. He had many short flings throughout his racing career, all of which was followed relentlessly through gossip magazines. But, in 1956, he finally found someone to settle down with. And it couldn't have come with someone more high-profile.
Delia Scala was one of Italy's leading actresses at the time, and through 1956 and 1957, was beginning the transition to the silver screen to become one of Italy's pioneering television personalities. In the summer of 1956, she met Castellotti at a restaurant, and started talking to him simply because the pale blue colour of his trousers matched the car. Eventually, conversations about matching colours became a date, and then a relationship. A relationship that apparently newspaper reporters could not get enough of. Italy's future legend in motor racing pairs up with leading young actress, both of whom were ridiculously hot. A gossip writer's wet dream.
This was two people's nightmare, though. First was Castellotti's mother, who upon meeting Scala for the first time, took her by the hand and said "You look like a waitress, the kitchen is over there". Good going, Mrs. Castellotti.
Second, and maybe more importantly, was Enzo Ferrari. He hated it when his drivers would get all caught up in intense romance, furthermore if it affected them emotionally, and even more so if it said relationship was spread over nearly every damn newspaper in Italy. He thought it'd affect their race pace and their drive to continue. And, for a while, it seemed Enzo was right.
Castellotti and Scala proposed and planned to get married in April. However, between the two, there was an intense discussion that turned into a disagreement. Scala wanted Castellotti to give up driving, fearing that it was getting too dangerous for him. However, Castellotti told Scala that she should give up acting as it would cost them time together when he wasn't racing elsewhere. I don't know where the two stood on the compromise, but it was certain that Castellotti would probably have to focus less on racing should he wish to remain with Scala.
However, on track, results were still going pretty well for Castellotti in 1957, claiming both first and third in his respective driver lineups in the 1000 km of Buenos Aires. Additionally, in the Argentine Grand Prix for 1957, he took an early lead and was launching a serious challenge to the now-dominant Maseratis, but his Ferrari, like all the other Ferraris, gave up the ghost while running in third.
As was tradition in those days, the Argentine Grand Prix and other events in South America was run in their January summer, then Formula One would take a break until May to restart that season in Monaco. With marriage around the corner, Castellotti took the time to take a nice vacation in Florence with his bride-to-be Scala, who was booked for a play there for the time being. Call it a pre-marriage honeymoon, if you will.
A pre-marriage honeymoon that got rudely interrupted by none other than Enzo Ferrari. He rang up Castellotti in a huff and instructed him to go to Modena the next day to test the Ferrari. But this was more than just some last-minute test set up by Ferrari or a call for Castellotti to deputize for another driver.
As it turns out, Jean Behra and Maserati were testing at Modena that day, and Enzo found out that they had beaten Ferrari's ultimate lap record around the Autodrome. According to some people, most notably Luigi Villoresi, Enzo Ferrari had placed a lunchtime wager on the lap record, so when he saw it got beaten, he called the first person he could find - that being Eugenio - to come down to Modena to take that record back.
Castellotti was undoubtedly fuming, having had precious time with his fiancée interrupted for a stupid lap record. But he had to listen to Enzo. Nobody dared to oppose him. On March 14th, he left Florence at 4 a.m. to make the long drive to Modena, to get suited up and get ready for practice.
On just his second or third flying lap, Castellotti lost control in the esses at the start of the lap, and the car overturned through a fence and into a (mercifully empty) grandstand. Castellotti was thrown out. The local parish priest, Don Sergio Mantovani, was present to read him the last rites as he laid dying on the track. He was only 26 years old. His wedding with Scala was just twenty-five days away.
The reason for the crash has been disputed. Jean Behra, present at the track having set the aforementioned lap record, insisted there was a problem with the gearbox, having heard it shift to neutral just before the crash. Other sources feel it was just a mistake in downshifting. Most attribute this error to the fact that Castellotti was robbed of a holiday with Scala for the pettiest of reasons, thus the claim that his mind was not in the right place. This theory was exacerbated by the fact he had to wake up extremely early and drive a considerable distance to reach Modena in the first place. The true cause of his death was still unknown. Multiple sources claim that Enzo Ferrari, upon hearing news of the crash, said something to the tune of, "Castellotti? Dead? What a pity. How's the car?"
Whatever it was, a petty debate over a trivial lap record robbed Formula One of a rising star in his prime. One who could've done so much more. And yet, despite this, his story in motor racing is extremely colourful.
He scored a podium in just his second start in F1. He was the protege to Alberto Ascari, and also heavily involved in the scene of his death. Impacted by this, he convinced a major manufacturer shutting up shop to loan him a chassis, with which he would become the youngest ever polesitter in F1 at the time. He would finish his rookie season third, a feat that remained unbeaten for 41 years. He won the Mille Miglia all by himself in downright atrocious conditions. He had a fiery rivalry with a fellow compatriot to see who would be their country's next future star. He married one of Italy's most famous celebrities at the time. And he died because of a wager set over lunch.
That is the story of 'Il Bello', Eugenio Castellotti.
Sources:
The Limit: Life and Death in Formula One's Most Dangerous Era by Michael Cannell
Enzo Ferrari: A Life by Richard Williams
Too Fast A Life by Martin Shepherd
Motorsport Magazine (This plus many of their contemporary race reports) -- 8W @ Forix -- Motorsport Memorial -- Ferrari Owner's Club -- Scuderia Ferrari Legends
F1 Racing (via PressReader) -- Veloce Today -- Racing Sportscars -- StatsF1 -- Revs Institute
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